Coal and India in it’s Union Budget 2020-21. Is India really serious about its Climate Change commitments?

Centre’s Expenditure (figures in crore)

Revenue

Capital

Total

Actual 2018-19

708.34

0

708.34

Budget Estimate 2019-20

1159.05

0

1159.05

Revised Estimate 2019-20

933.60

0

933.60

Budget Estimate 2020-21

882.61

0

882.61

The breakup for this head is Rs. 819.98 crore for R&D, conservation, safety & infrastructure development in coal mines, and exploration of coal and lignite; Rs. 22.35 crore for coal mines pension scheme; and the remaining Rs. 40.28 crore is for the secretariat, statutory bodies and sub-ordinate bodies. The coal mines pension scheme allocation is the same as a social services developmental need and is covered under Labour, Employment and Skill Development. R&D’s main thrust area is promotion of clean coal technology and to identify coal blocks for coal to liquid projects. Conservation, safety and infrastructure’s emphasis is towards conservation of coal through protective works and safety improvement. The infrastructure component in coal field areas is development of road and rail network. Exploration of coal and lignite is to meet the demand for coal, including provisions for detailed drilling in n0n-Coal India Limited coal mining blocks (like the NTPC blocks) that would help the prospective investors in taking investment decisions regarding coal mining and reduction of time for preparing the mining plan. The allocation for the exploration of coal and lignite is Rs. 700 crore, which is to assess the coal availability to meet the sizable increase in the demand for coal. This scheme is to be implemented by the Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDIL). Also, this step would help build promoting the private investment in the coal mining industry. 

The Government has eased restrictions on foreign investment in coal mining, in an effort to attract more capital from abroad. The allocation for the Coal Ministry has seen a 5.4% reduction to Rs. 882.61 crore for the FY 2020-21, a dip from the revised estimates for the FY 2019-20 of Rs. 933.60 crore. While the expenditure was Rs. 1159.05 crore for 2019-20, the actual was Rs. 708.32 crore for 2018-19. This year, however, the major increase in the allocation was towards the central sector schemes, that are entirely and directly funded and executed by the central government. However, there has been an increase in investment in public enterprises, including Coal India Limited in FY 2020-21 that stands at Rs. 18467 crore over the revised estimate of Rs. 18121 crore in FY 2109-20, which is a rise by 1.91%. What is really surprising is the mining of dirty fuel/coal by CIL which has got an overall capital outlay of Rs. 9500 crore this year. Juxtaposing this allocation with the Finance Minister’s focus on closing down thermal plants that violate carbon emissions is a paradox in itself. 

For the thermal power plants that are in violation of the National Clean Air Program (NCAP with an allocation of Rs. 4400 crore for FY 2020-21), the Finance Minister has announced a closure of such plants. These plants that are old and whose carbon emissions are higher than the preset limit would be advised to close down and the land will be put to alternative energy purposes. On the mitigation of polluted air, the International Solar Alliance will help in SDGs, climate change, disaster resilience and the NDCs under the Paris Accord. Earlier, a total of 47.95 GW of thermal capacity missed the December 31 deadline to install Flue Gas Desulphurization (FDG) units to minimize SO2 emissions level. According to the five-year National Clean Air Action Plan, the Government plans to reduce by 20-30% the concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 by 2024, and according to the Finance Minister, the plan is India’s best effort basis and kicks off in 2021 on January 1. Interestingly, according to the Budget speech, the climate action targets under the 2015 Paris Accords were to be executed under the normal budgetary allocations. Also, according to the Paris Accords, India has committed to reduce by 2030 the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% over the 2005 levels. It has also pledged to generate 40% of India’s power capacity from non-fossil sources and create and additional carbon sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through afforestation by 2030. 

So, what the Budget does is provide a conflicting picture of furthering mining either by domestic players, or by inviting mine-cum-developers by way of FDI on the one hand and its commitment to mitigate pollution standards either by retiring old plants or switching to renewables on the other. These two avenues clash in principle and throws up a confused state of affairs in India’s contributions to Paris Accords of 2015. 

Image result for coal mining dirty"

Schematic Grothendieck Representation

A spectral Grothendieck representation Rep is said to be schematic if for every triple γ ≤ τ ≤ δ in Top(A), for every A in R^(Ring) we have a commutative diagram in R^:

IMG_20191226_064217

 

If Rep is schematic, then, P : Top(A) → R^ is a presheaf with values in R^ over the lattice Top(A)o, for every A in R.

The modality is to restrict attention to Tors(Rep(A)); that is, a lattice in the usual sense; and hence this should be viewed as the commutative shadow of a suitable noncommutative theory.

For obtaining the complete lattice Q(A), a duality is expressed by an order-reversing bijection: (−)−1 : Q(A) → Q((Rep(A))o). (Rep(A))o is not a Grothendieck category. It is additive and has a projective generator; moreover, it is known to be a varietal category (also called triplable) in the sense that it has a projective regular generator P, it is co-complete and has kernel pairs with respect to the functor Hom(P, −), and moreover every equivalence relation in the category is a kernel pair. If a comparison functor is constructed via Hom(P, −) as a functor to the category of sets, it works well for the category of set-valued sheaves over a Grothendieck topology.

Now (−)−1 is defined as an order-reversing bijection between idempotent radicals on Rep(A) and (Rep(A))o, implying we write (Top(A))−1 for the image of Top(A) in Q((Rep( A))o). This is encoded in the exact sequence in Rep(A):

0 → ρ(M) → M → ρ−1(M) → 0

(reversed in (Rep(A))o). By restricting attention to hereditary torsion theories (kernel functors) when defining Tors(−), we introduce an asymmetry that breaks the duality because Top(A)−1 is not in Tors((Rep(A))op). If notationally, TT(G) is the complete lattice of torsion theories (not necessarily hereditary) of the category G; then (TT(G))−1 ≅ TT(Gop). Hence we may view Tors(G)−1 as a complete sublattice of TT(Gop).

The Code of Capital or the Legal Structure of Finance – How the Law Creates Wealth and Inequality with Katharina Pistor

In The Code of Capital: How the Law Creates Wealth and InequalityKatharina Pistoroffers an expansive analysis of the construction of capital, showing legal coding to be at the heart of this process. This is a welcome interdisciplinary contribution which attaches fresh dimensions to debates on the political economy of wealth and inequality and will be a valuable resource for anyone seeking to grapple with the formidable nature of global capital.

The economic and legal reforms coincided with the demise of the Iron Curtain and socialist governments, and were implemented in developing as well as emerging markets, and promised eventual benefits for everyone. But instead, contemporary levels of inequality are comparable to those that prevailed before the French Revolution. A standard response to such disparity is simply to hold ‘capitalism’ accountable. But Pistor argues that even to do just this, it is necessary to be cognisant of how capital is made. To do so is to resist simplifications in which capital is a thing, or a core feature of social relations between a proletariat and a bourgeoisie: ‘Against this background, one might even question whether it makes sense to bundle historical epochs that differ so fundamentally from one another under a single rubric of “capitalism”’.

 

The Polity Today

The Polity Today…

Image result for Jamia violence

Stifled and Suffocated Under Occupation,
Confined to a Life of Brazen Act of Annexation,
Subjected to a Toxicity by the Rest of the Confederacy,
Paying the Price for Some Cooked and Some Raw Conspiracy.

Counting Days and nights Cutoff from the Near and Dear Ones,
By the apathy and Atrophy of the Power that Runs,
Into a Corner and Forced Underground,
By the Despicable Vulgarity and Obscenity of the Dictatorial Sound.

Who’d Turn a Messiah to the Multiplying Affliction,
To Arrest the Basic Arithmetic of Division by Constriction,
To a Unity Imposed by Self-Rule and Determination,
By a Despot Shambolic and Ostentatious in Bringing Forth Malediction.

We are People With Indomitable Rights,
Sacrificed at the Altar of Rituals and Rites,
Chanted on by a Population that doesn’t seem to Care,
Legitimizing the Deeds of the Fundamentalists’ as an Internal Affair.

I, the Citizen, or You, the Citizen

Image result for curfew

Please cry for me India…
I, the citizen have lost my rights to be me,
I, the citizen have ceased to be,
I, the citizen have been stripped, raped, and burnt alive,
I, the citizen have been subject to justice denied,
I, the citizen have been alienated,
I, the citizen have been forcibly occupied,
I, the citizen have been living in constant fear,
I, the citizen have been subject to repeated smear,
I, the citizen have lost my right to express,
I, the citizen have my autonomy to suppress,
I, the citizen have my society divided,
I, the citizen have my politics lopsided,
I, the citizen are what you cast(e) me,
I, the citizen are what you class me,
Enough of this I, the citizen, for I shan’t be, what you prove me to be.
You, the citizen carve your own story,
You, the citizen, toy with my history,
You, the citizen decide what’s right,
You, the citizen have lost all foresight,
You, the citizen stifle my being,
You, the citizen compel me to fleeing,
You, the citizen regulate me with force,
You, the citizen admit, everything’s normal of course,
You, the citizen deny me free air,
You, the citizen snatch what’s my fair share,
You, the citizen dictate,
You, the citizen choose what’s my intimate,
You, the citizen force upon me your religion,
You, the citizen submit me to an unseen region,
Enough of this You, the Citizen, for WE the PEOPLE,
Will rise to dismantle,
What is yours to impose,
Won’t rest until you are deposed…

An Ode to a Silent Communicator…

tomasz-ryger-cursed-valley-min

With the setting and rising of the moon and the sun,
Shuffling back and forth in the derelict zone,
Mired in temporary infatuation and still on the run,
Waiting idly for the overwhelming attachment of what we don’t own.

Caught between the manic, the desirous and the anticipatory,
Playing by the gamble of this celestial cyclicity,
Stupefied in a hesitant, yet revelatory anxiety of the reconciliatory,
Calling upon to perpetually chasing along this periodicity.

Woken up to a reality of the ill-spraying wind,
To the lives torn asunder, and left to adrift,
Into the great chasm and the abyss of the chagrined,
Against the score of a deep silence, and the lyrically thrift…

How Long Do I?

grief
How long do I smile through the tears
How long do I fake there are no fears
How long do I put my insecurities to sleep
How long do I lock away the hurt that’s so deep…
How long do I write the ledger of tragedy
How long do I hide what’s written under comedy
How long do I regret what’s forgotten
How long do I not regret what’s forgiven
How long do I look for stars in daylight
How long do I long for sun at midnight
How long do I curse my stars
How long do I hold them the cause of my scars
How long do I mourn
All along in this state of being forlorn…