Math Conundrum in Thomas Pynchon

vqylv

Her idea of banter
Likely isn’t Cantor
Nor is she apt to murmur low Axioms of Zermelo,
She’s been kissed by geniuses, Amateur Frobeniuses
One by one in swank array, Bright as any Poincaré…

and so on in that vein.

It was when I came upon the word “automorphic”…Earth making its automorphic way round the sun again and yet again…periodic functions, and their generalized form, automorphic functions as a prelude to a scholarly discussion of time travel:

Time no longer ‘passes,’ with a linear velocity, but ‘returns,’ with an angular one. All is ruled by the Automorphic Dispensation. We are returned to ourselves eternally, or, if you like, timelessly.

You find an awful lot of hyperbolas in Against the Day. For example: the hyperbolic geometry in connection with automorphic functions; the “Automorphic Dispensation” which seems to be a “function… by which, almost as a by-product, ordinary Euclidean space is transformed to Lobachevskian”; and that “perfect hyper-hyperboloid” that “only Miles” Blundell, the one character to have comprehended the meaning of space-time, “can see in its entirety.” There are (hyperbolic) wave equations (and a whole family of Vibes) and the “noted Quaternionist V. Ganesh Rao of Calcutta University” who by rotating himself in an imaginary direction performs something “like reincarnation on a budget, without the element of karma to worry about.”

Or as the NewYorker puts it,

The readers will encounter many references to, and, frequently, extended disquisitions on, such matters as Hamilton’s Quaternions, Gibbsian vector analysis, Riemann spheres, Prandtl’s discovery of the boundary layer, the Hilbert Pólya Conjecture, the Minkowskian space-time track, and Zermelo’s Axiom of Choice. Inserting this stuff into novelistic situations produces passages like this one, describing a meeting of an outfit known as the Transnoctial Discussion Group.

“Time moves on but one axis,” advised Dr. Blope, “past to future—the only turnings possible being turns of a hundred and eighty degrees. In the Quaternions, a ninety-degree direction would correspond to an additional axiswhose unit is √-1. A turn through any other angle would require for its unit a complex number.”

“Yet mappings in which a linear axis becomes curvilinear—functions of a complex variable such as w=ez, where a straight line in the z-plane maps to a circle in the w-plane,” said Dr. Rao, “do suggest the possibility of linear time becoming circular, and so achieving eternal return as simply, or should I say complexly, as that.”. . . As if the hour itself in growing later had exposed some obscure fatality, the discussion moved to the subject of the luminiferous Æther, as to which exchanges of opinion—relying, like Quaternions, largely on faith—often failed to avoid a certain vehemence……..

Still coming to grips with this ?????????

 

100 Days of #Demonetization. Citizens’ Protest on 19th February 2017.

demonetization-poster

The highs of demonetization when the Government can’t be LYING low.

Countering the Economic Emergency imposed ON the people. 
The Government has redefined Democracy, A form of Government BY the people, FOR the people, OF the people and crucially, ON the people. Rather than democracy, Demonetization has shown what DEMONcracy is all about. Please join in huge numbers on the 19th February 2017 for a Citizens’ Protest and shout out to the Government that Enough is Enough. 

#Demonetization #100DaysofDemonetization #CitizensProtest #JantarMantar

 नोटबंदी के 100 दिन 

धरना और रैली

19 फरवरी, 2017, रविवार , 12 बजे से 

मंडी  हाउस  से जंतर मंतर तक 

जंतर मंतर पर जनसभा और सांस्कृतिक कार्यक्रम

इसमें कोई गुंजाईश नहीं कि पिछले 100 दिनों में भारतीय जनता आर्थिक आपदा से जूझ रही है. 8 नवंबर 2016 की रात को प्रधानमंत्री ने 500 और 1000 के नोटों का विमुद्रीकरण कर इनके चलन को अवैध घोषित कर दिया और दावा किया कि इससे कालाधन पर रोक लगेगा, कर चोरी रुकेगी, आतंकवादी गतिविधियों के फंडिंग पर रोक लगेगी और जाली नोटों पर लगाम लगेगा. जिनके पास ये नोट थे, उन्हें जमा करने के लिए करीब 2 महीनों की मुहलत दी गयी और निकासी के लिए  भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक ने कई स्तर की सीमाबद्धता निर्धारित कर दी. भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था जो मुख्य रूप से नकदी पर आधारित है और इसमें भी एक बड़ी तादाद ऐसे लोगों का है जिसे इस पूरे आर्थिक तंत्र से बाहर कर दिया गया है, वह केवल और केवल नकदी मुद्रा पर निर्भर है. यह गुहार किया गया कि “फौरी तौर पर थोड़ी तकलीफ सह लें” क्योंकि यह देश की सेहत के लिए बहुत जरूरी है. प्रधान मंत्री का यह आह्वान था कि इस “तात्कालिक मुसीबत” को झेल लेने से भारतीय अर्थ व्यवस्था की सारी बीमारियाँ ठीक हो जायेंगी.

लेकिन हुआ क्या? पूरे देश की जनता अपने बचत को जमा करने और नोट बदलवाने के लिए बदहवास बैंकों की कतारों में लगने को मज़बूर हुई. नए नोटों के लिए लम्बी और अंतहीन कतारों में लोग लगे रहे. इन कतारों में कई लोगों की जानें चली गयीं, बीमारों का समय पर इलाज़ नहीं हो पाया, सामाजिक कार्यक्रम जैसे शादी और मैयत के लिए लोगों को दर-दर की ठोकरें खानी पड़ी और ताने ये दिया जा रहा था यह कि देश की सरहद पर हमारे सैनिक अपना खून देकर आपकी रक्षा कर रहे हैं, और आप थोड़ी तकलीफ नहीं झेल सकते? पर उनका क्या जिनका किसी बैंक में खाता तक नहीं है. या उनका क्या जो बैंक या एटीएम से काफी दूरी पर हैं,वो अपना  नोट कैसे बदलवायें? उन लोगों का क्या जो अपनी छोटी-छोटी बचत को जमा करने के लिए अपनी दिहाड़ी छोड़ कर दिन भर कतारों में लगे रहे? उन महिलाओं का क्या जो बड़ी मेहनत और जतन से किसी विपदा के लिए वर्षों से कुछ बचा कर रखीं थीं? उन करोड़ों रुपयों का क्या जो कोआपरेटिव बैंकिंग सिस्टम में बचत कर के रखा गया था, जो अभी भी मुख्यधारा के बैंकिंग तंत्र से कोसों दूर हैं, लेकिन ये कई राज्यों में  करोड़ों लोगों के पैसे को हिफाज़त से रखते हैं? जो लोग इस मुसीबत को झेल रहे थे, मालूम हैं उनके लिए पी.एम. मोदी का समाधान क्या था? 9 नवंबर को लगभग तमाम अखबारों में विज्ञापन दिखा “अभी एटीएम नहीं पेटीएमकरो”

ऐसी क्या मज़बूरी थी कि सरकार यह नहीं बताना चाह रही थी कि अस्थाई मुसीबतें कैसे हमारे जीवन को, आजीविका को और अनौपचारिक क्षेत्र की अर्थव्यवस्था को स्थाई रूप से तबाह कर देगी . सरकार को पता होना चाहिए था  थ कि इस कदम के लिए न तो आरबीआई और ना ही बैंक पूरी तरह से तैयार थे, और यह कदम उल्टा पड़ सकता था. प्रधानमंत्री को यह निश्चित तौर पर मालूम था कि इससे कालाधन पर रोक नहीं लगेगा. अमेरिका-मेरिल लिंच बैंक के एक अध्ययन के मुताबिक अनुमान है कि सकल घरेलू उत्पाद में 25 % धन काली अर्थव्यस्था का है और इसमें महज 10 प्रतिशत हिस्सा ही नकद रूप में है. यानी कि 90 फ़ीसदी कालेधन का कभी भी नकदी के रूप में प्रयोग  नहीं रहा.  यह सच्चाई श्रीमान मोदी, श्रीमान जेटली और श्रीमान शाह अच्छी तरह जानते थे. आखिर क्या वजह है कि सरकार उसी जनता से लगातार झूठ बोल रही है, जिसके वोट से ये सत्ता में आये हुए हैं. आखिर किसके हितों को इस नोटबंदी के जरिये साधा गया.

जहाँ तक जाली नोटों का सवाल है, RBI का आंकड़ा दिखाता  है कि करीब 90.26 अरब भारतीय मुद्रा के नोट 2015-16 में चलन में थे, इसमें से मात्र 0.0007% ही जाली नोट थे. 2015-16 में इन नोटों का कुल मूल्य मात्र 29.64 करोड़ रुपये था जो कुल चलन में 16.41 लाख करोड़ रुपये का महज .000018 फ़ीसदी ही है. नोटबंदी का वास्तविक असर जैसा कि ढिंढोरा पीटा जा रहा था, बहुत ही आंशिक रहा . पुरानी कहावत  है कि “एक चूहे को पकड़ने के लिए पूरे घर को जला दिया गया”. इस नोटबंदी के पीछे यह भी तर्क दिया गया कि इससे देशद्रोही गतिविधियों के लिए फंडिंग रुकेगी. लेकिन क्या आज तक एक भी उदहारण देखने को  मिला जिससे कि आतंकवादी गतिविधियों में कोई रुकावट आयी हो? यदि कुछ प्रभाव पड़ा भी तो महज क्षणिक ही प्रभाव रहा जबतक कि नए नोट बदल नहीं लिए गए. नए  2000 और 500 के नोट पुराने 1000 और 500 के  नोट से कहीं ज्यादा देशद्रोही गतिविधियों के लिए माकूल हैं. तमाम गतिविधियों में नकदी का चलन बहुत छोटा हिस्सा है, यह ना तो आतंक का प्रेरणा स्रोत है और ना ही आतंकवादी गतिविधियों का मूल कारण. केवल एक ही दहशतगर्दी दिखी, वह थी सरकार द्वारा देश की जनता पर चलाई गई आर्थिक दहशतगर्दी.

आखिर यह पूरी कवायद क्या थी. हम भारत के लोग, पूरी शिद्दत के साथ अपनी आवाज बुलंद करते हैं कि हमें किसी अतिमानव (सुपर हीरो) की जरूरत नहीं जो अलोकतांत्रिक ढंग से काम करता हो और हमें सपने दिखाता  हो, और सपने बेच कर हमें उल्लू बनाता हो. हमें जनपक्षीय सरकार की जरूरत है ना कि कॉर्पोरेटपरस्त आर्थिक आपदा की. हम इस प्रकार के किसी भी आर्थिक और राजनीतिक  विमुद्रिकरण को अस्वीकार करते हैं, और पूरी शिद्दत के साथ मांग करते हैं कि हमें पारदर्शी और जवाबदेह सरकार चाहिए जो वर्त्तमान सरकार के कुतर्क तर्क और झूठे दावे “हमें मालूम है लोगों को क्या चाहिए” को पलट दे. हम आधार स्कीम के तहत सरकार के तानाशाही और दमघोंटू मुहिम का पुरजोर विरोध करते हैं और मांग करते हैं कि इस मुहिम पर तत्काल प्रभाव से राजनीतिक और न्यायिक दखल कर रोक लगाई जाय. हम मांग करते हैं कि सरकार नोटबंदी पर श्वेतपत्र जारी करे कि लोगों की जिंदगी और उनके आजीविका पर कितना प्रभाव पड़ा है और इसका तुरंत हर्जाना दे. हम मांग करते हैं कि कॉर्पोरेट द्वारा “कैशलेस” मुहिम को तत्काल वापस लिया जाय.

Indian people have undergone nothing less than an Economic Emergency for the last 100 days. On the midnight of 8/11/16, in a single pronouncement, the Prime Minister of India made higher denominations of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 illegal tender under the pretense of curbing black money, arresting tax evasion, stopping funding of terrorist activities and counterfeiting of currency. Those who had these notes were given a time frame of less than 2 months to deposit them and withdraw new denominations in different slabs of limits set by the RBI. The Indian economy, which is predominantly cash based and the Indian people, a great section of who are financially excluded, existing solely on hard currency, would somehow have to manage through this ‘temporary crisis’ for the greater good of the nation. This was the call of the Prime Minister to undergo ‘temporary hardships’ to root out the ills of the Indian Economy.

And so what happened? The country panicked and people rushed to banks to deposit their cash savings, exchange high denominations and lines formed. Long lines, winding unending lines full of people waiting to deposit and get new notes. People died in those lines, many patients could not get timely medical help, many social functions – marriages and burials got drowned in questions of “why cant you suffer a little for the country, when soldiers are giving their blood in the borders to protect you”. But what about people who never had a bank account? Or those too far away from a branch or ATM to withdraw or exchange? Or those whose earnings were so marginal that they could not spare losing a day’s work waiting in lines? Or women who had painstakingly collected money for emergency over many years? What about those crores of rupees that was saved through co-operative banking system, still far away from the mainstream banking operations – but was safeguarding the money of crores of people in many states? Modi’s solution for those suffering was clearly evident on the morning of the 9th, plastered on almost every major newspaper “abhi ATM nahin, Paytm Karo.”

What the government did not tell us was that these temporary hardships would leave a permanent damage on lives, livelihoods and disturb a major chunk of the informal economy. The Government should have known that with underprepared RBI and unprepared banks, the move was bound to backfire. In retrospect, the Prime minister surely knew that demonetization wasn’t about black money; it wasn’t about funding the terrorists; and it certainly wasn’t about counterfeit currency.  A study done by Bank of America-Merill Lynch estimates black economy at 25% of GDP and quantifies the cash component at 10% of the above. Hence, 90% of black wealth was never in cash. A fact that was well known to Mr. Modi, Mr. Jaitley and Mr. Shah. Why did the Government then lie to the citizens of India who voted them to power? Whose interest are being pushed through demonetization?

As for counterfeiting, RBI data shows that, of the 90.26 billion Indian currency notes in circulation in 2015-16, only 0.0007%, were detected as fake. The value of these fake notes in 2015-16 was Rs 29.64 crore, which is 0.0018 per cent of the Rs 16.41 lakh crore currency in circulation. The actual impact of demonetization is then so marginal that the ideology behind its application can best be captured by the old saying, “burning down the house to catch a mouse.” Seditious funding was also given as a reason for demonetization, but did we ever hear of any examples of how terrorism was halted by this move? Even if there was any impact, it can only have been temporary, until new cash replaced the old! The new Rs.2000 and Rs.500 note is as seditious as the old Rs.1000 and Rs.500 note then! Cash is merely one of many conduits; it is neither the source, the motivation nor the act of terrorism. The only act of terrorism seems to be by the government in economically terrorizing the entire population of the country.

So, what exactly was the drive for? We, the people of India, affirm that we do not need a superhero, who does not act democratically and instead is all about weaving and selling dreams. We need people oriented governance and not corporate driven economic emergency. We reject the economic and political premises of demonetization and affirm that a transparent and accountable government is required to replace the current logic of ‘we know what is good for the people’. We reject in totality the authoritarian drive to push the UID/Aadhar scheme down people’s throats and demand political and judicial intervention to stop the drive immediately. We demand that the government produce a white paper on the impacts of demonetization on people’s lives and livelihoods and compensate for the lives and livelihoods. We demand that the corporate driven ‘cashless’ economy plan be immediately withdrawn.

Paulian Idea, Bayesianism and Quantum Solipsism. Note Quote.

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The best way to begin a more thoroughly QBist delineation of quantum mechanics is to start with two choice quotes on personalist Bayesianism itself. The first is from Hampton, Moore, and Thomas,

Bruno de Finetti believes there is no need to assume that the probability of some event has a uniquely determinable value. His philosophical view of probability is that it expresses the feeling of an individual and cannot have meaning except in relation to him.

and the second from Dennis Lindley,

The Bayesian, subjectivist, or coherent, paradigm is egocentric. It is a tale of one person contemplating the world and not wishing to be stupid (technically, incoherent). He realizes that to do this his statements of uncertainty must be probabilistic.

These two quotes make it absolutely clear that personalist Bayesianism is a “single-user theory.” Thus, QBism must inherit at least this much egocentrism in its view of quantum states ρ.

For, the “Paulian Idea”—which is also essential to the QBist view—goes further still. It says that the outcomes to quantum measurements are single-user as well! That is to say, when an agent writes down her degrees of belief for the outcomes of a quantum measurement, what she is writing down are her degrees of belief about her potential personal experiences arising in consequence of her actions upon the external world

With regard to the Paulian Idea there are two points that are decisive for dismissing the charge of solipsism. One is the conceptual split of the world into two parts—one an agent and the other an external quantum system—that gets the discussion of quantum measurement off the ground in the first place. If such a split were not needed for making sense of the question of actions (actions upon what? in what? with respect to what?), it simply would not have been made. Imagining a quantum measurement without an autonomous quantum system participating in the process would be as paradoxical as the Zen koan of the sound of a single hand clapping. The second point is that once the agent chooses an action {Ei}, the particular consequence Ek of it is beyond his control. That is to say, the particular outcome of a quantum measurement is not a product of his desires, whims, or fancies—this is the very reason he uses the calculus of probabilities in the first place: they quantify his uncertainty, an uncertainty that, try as he might, he cannot get around. So, implicit in this whole picture—this whole Paulian Idea—is an “external world . . . made of something,” just as Martin Gardner(1) calls for. It is only that quantum theory is a rather small theory: Its boundaries are set by being a handbook for agents immersed within that “world made of something.”

(1) “Well then, it is incomplete after all. Go seek hidden variables!” But that is to misunderstand the problematic here. Theories of decision that really are theories of decision just don’t “port” to theories or visions of the world in that way. From the point of view of being a theory for taking actions and gambles, quantum theory is already all that it can be.