There is a lot of confusion between debt and equity financing, though there is a clear line of demarcation as such. Whats even more sorry as a state of affair is these jargons being used pretty platitudinously, and this post tries to recover from any such usage now bordering on the colloquial, especially on the activists’s side of the camp.
What is Debt Financing?
Debt financing is a means of raising funds to generate working capital that is used to pay for projects or endeavors that the issuer of the debt wishes to undertake. The issuer may choose to issue bonds, promissory notes or other debt instruments as a means of financing the debt associated with the project. In return for purchasing the notes or bonds, the investor is provided with some type of return above and beyond the original amount of purchase.
Debt financing is very different from equity financing. With equity financing, revenue is generated by issuing shares of stock at a public offering. The shares remain active from the point of issue and will continue to generate returns for investors as long as the shares are held. By contrast, debt financing involves the use of debt instruments that are anticipated to be repaid in full within a given time frame.
With debt financing, the investor anticipates earning a return in the form of interest for a specified period of time. At the end of the life of a bond or note, the investor receives the full face value of the bond, including any interest that may have accrued. In some cases, bonds or notes may be structured to allow for periodic interest payments to investors throughout the life of the debt instrument.
For the issuer of the bonds or notes, debt financing is a great way to raise needed capital in a short period of time. Since it does not involve the issuing of shares of stock, there is a clear start and end date in mind for the debt. It is possible to project the amount of interest that will be repaid during the life of the bond and thus have a good idea of how to meet those obligations without causing undue hardship. Selling bonds is a common way of funding special projects, and is utilized by municipalities as well as many corporations.
Investors also benefit from debt financing. Since the bonds and notes are often set up with either a fixed rate of interest or a variable rate with a guarantee of a minimum interest rate, it is possible to project the return on the investment over the life of the bond. There is relatively little risk with this type of debt financing, so the investor does not have to be concerned about losing money on the deal. While the return may be somewhat modest, it is reliable. The low risk factor makes entering into a debt financing strategy very attractive for conservative investors.
What is Equity Financing?
Also known as share capital, equity financing is the strategy of generating funds for company projects by selling a limited amount of stock to investors. The financing may involve issuing shares of common stock or preferred stock. In addition, the shares may be sold to commercial or individual investors, depending on the type of shares involved and the governmental regulations that apply in the nation where the issuer is located. Both large and small business owners make use of this strategy when undertaking new company projects.
Equity financing is a means of raising the capital needed for some sort of company activity, such as the purchase of new equipment or the expansion of company locations or manufacturing facilities. The choice of which means of financing to use will often depend on the purpose that the business is pursuing, as well as the company’s current credit rating. With the strategy of equity financing, the expectation is that the project funded with the sale of the stock will eventually begin to turn a profit. At that point, the business not only is able to provide dividends to the shareholders who purchased the stock, but also realize profits that help to increase the financial stability of the company overall. In addition, there is no outstanding debt owed to a bank or other lending institution. The end result is that the company successfully funds the project without going into debt, and without the need to divert existing resources as a means of financing the project during its infancy.
While equity financing is an option that is often ideal for funding new projects, there are situations where looking into debt financing is in the best interests of the company. Should the project be anticipated to yield a return in a very short period of time, the company may find that obtaining loans at competitive interest rates is a better choice. This is especially true if this option makes it possible to launch the project sooner rather than later, and take advantage of favorable market conditions that increase the projected profits significantly. The choice between equity financing and debt financing may also involve considering different outcomes for the project. By considering how the company would be affected if the project fails, as well as considering the fortunes of the company if the project is successful, it is often easier to determine which financing alternative will serve the interests of the business over the long-term.
In summation, equity financing is the technique for raising capital organization stock to speculators whereas debt financing is the technique of raising capital by borrowing. Equity financing is offered forms like gained capital or revenue while debt financing is available in form of loan. Equity financing involves high risk as compare to debt financing. Equity holders have security but debt holders don’t have. In equity financing, entrepreneurs don’t need to channel benefits into credit reimbursement while in debt financing, entrepreneurs’ have to channel profit into repayment of loans.