Solah Rahi Tej Talab, Rewari, Haryana (सोलहराही तेज़ तालाब, रेवाड़ी, हरियाणा)

Located near Sector 1 in Rewari town, and next to Nehru Park is this expansive pond that was constructed by crowd-funding during the Mughal era in the 17th and 18th centuries. Rewari has always been a water-scarce town, and to overcome these hardships, a series of ponds were constructed as part of public works. Moreover, the town’s water supply was salty, and thus for potable water facilities, locals used to rely on wells made around this pond. This pond was built under the aegis of Gangaram Bhagat. The name Solah Rahi actually means, a place where 16 paths meet. The condition of the pond is dire, with embankments in the form of carved walls having collapsed, and encroached by slum dwellings. Also, the walls are being used for drying cow-dung cakes used as fuel. Even the water channels that used to feed the pond once upon a time have been blocked and/or choked. Massive quarrying takes place illegally as well. Within the Nehru Park lying next to the pond stands a majestic temple, squarish in dimensions, and built on a raised plinth. There are three domes that are fluted and have inverted lotuses as finials. The temple has three cusped arch entries on all four sides. Two set of stairs lead to the roof.

#Rewari #RewariHeritage #RewariHistory #SolahRahiTejTalab #HaryanaHeritage #HaryanaHistory #Architecture #HistoricalMonuments


Union Budget 2021-22 and Coal..(Preliminary Thoughts)

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Here is an extremely short and preliminary writeup on Union Budget 2021-22 presented by India’s Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on February 1, 2021, and the sector of coal mining and fossil fuel-based thermal power plants. Towards the end, I have given my thoughts on the Budget in general. 

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The break-up for this head for 2021-22 is Rs. 419.98 crore for R&D, conservation, safety & infrastructure development, and in exploring coal and lignite. This figure is almost half of what were the Budget Estimates for 2020-21, which stood at Rs. 819.98 crore, and which were revised to Rs. 553.73 crore in 2020-21. The revised estimates were largely a result of the CoViD-19 pandemic and the ensuing lockdown that almost crippled the coal mining sector, and eventually admonishing the Prime Minister to declare coal blocks open to commercial mining. The main thrust of R&D is to promote the paradoxical clean coal technology, and to identify coal blocks for coal to liquid project. Coal-to-Liquid, also called “Coal Liquefaction” is an alternative route to produce diesel and gasoline to economize in a world of high crude oil prices. Even though, liquefied coal emits twice as much CO2 and a huge volume of SO2, arresting these polluters by way of geosequestration reduces their carbon footprint by close to 200 per cent as compared to conventional petrol and diesel produced from oil. What is a real downer in this budget is the fraction of allocation (a mere Rs. 18 crore) towards R&D in this field, which falls under the ambit of central sector schemes, in that it it completely funded by the central government. Although, this is a bigger amount as compared to revised estimates for 2020-21, it is almost 1/3rd of budget estimates for last year. Interestingly, Rs. 71.98 crore have been allotted for conservation, safety and infrastructure development in 2021-22, which is almost a midpoint figure of the budget estimates and revised estimates for the last fiscal year, i.e. 2020-21. The defining feature of infrastructure development is laying of road and rail network to facilitate movement of coal from mines, planning environmental protection, and most importantly reparations in the form of reclamation of land and subsidence control in coal field areas. The domain of exploration leaves little for doubt that India’s future as decided in this budget is firmly embedded in fossil-fuels, how much ever, renewables get a fillip. The emphasis is firmly on undertaking preliminary drilling to asses availability of coal with a view to meet the sizable increase in the demand for coal. This fits in nicely with Prime Minister Modi’s decision in opening up of the coal mining sector to commercial mining, a feat he had laconically described as unlocking the coal sector after 4 decades of forced lockdown. Now that the coal mining as s sector is all geared up for investments is easily attributable to the fact that detailed drilling in non-CIL (Coal India Limited) areas has a thrust on promoting private players in mining. Another major chunk of allocations has been underlined towards Coal Mines Pension Scheme. With Rs. 53.20 crore earmarked for the scheme, which has been in effect from 31st March 1998, the employees and employers contribute 1.17% each, while the central government contributes 1.67% of the salary subject to the maximum of the amount payable on salary of Rs. 1600 per month. On the IEBR, Internal and External Budgetary Resources, which are part of the central plan of the Government of India constituting resources raised by the PSUs through profits, loans and equity, front, Neyveli Lignite Corporation India Limited has been staked at Rs. 2061 crore, Coal India Limited has been staked at Rs. 14685 crore, and Singareni Colleries Company Limited has been staked at Rs. 2500 crore. Though, these are budget estimates, they are larger than last fiscal’s by almost Rs. 800 crore, and even larger than revised estimates of almost Rs. 19000 crore last fiscal.

Commercial coal mining has been touted as an important pillar of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, wherein the Government is committed to come up with a policy of strategic disinvestment of public sector enterprises. What this budget has done is built up hopes in certain concerning areas, whereas it has also given a clear miss in certain others as far as coal and its strategic place within the energy spectrum for the country is concerned. Add to that the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuel, the position of the Government in acknowledging closure of old coal-based plants is heartening at best, but begs the question of its implementation, which has been a downer for the last few years. Where the Government has not been able to loosen coal’s position in regards to natural gas has been the issue of pricing to make the latter affordable in comparison to the former, and also start building up on policies pertaining to natural gas as a replacement to coal in industrial usage. So, unless the Government is able to incentivize natural gas usage, coal would continue to enjoy its prioritized status. Agreed that coal is a cheap source of energy, but it is a polluter like none else, and also escapes the ambit of additional state taxation making it more affordable. This budget in a nutshell, then continues with its policy paralysis as regards coal, though acknowledgement of coal’s replaceability should have been much more pronounced. But, what about imported coal? There are differing views on changing tariffs on account of proposed Agriculture Infrastructure Development cess levied by the Government on coal and lignite. According to the finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman, with the lowering of basic customs duty rates by 1%, any imposition of this cess, which is placed at 1.5% on coal imports would not put an additional burden on the consumers. Not much would change by way of importing coal, and clubbing it with the domestic sector of coal mining opening up for commercialization, India’s policy on coal at best remains ambiguous. This once again puts question marks on India’s commitment to phasing put coal, despite it taking giant strides in renewable power.

General Thoughts on Budget –

Three words define 2021-22 Union Budget – Infrastructure, Divestment, Capitalization.

Positives –
Overhauling redundancy in customs duty, GST simplification (though, fuel still didn’t come under GST, which is a downside), arming to teeth NCLT, ease of accessing taxation structures (and exempting IT returns for senior citizens who live by pension and interest), pumping health infrastructure (including vaccines), and most importantly, announcing a singularity in securities markets code are a plus.
Negatives –
Sovereign bonds have dipped under immense pressure to borrow (yields have gone up making borrowing more expensive for the government), raising of import duties signal protectionism (as a matter of fact, Atmanirbharta is anything but roguish protectionism), agriculture (though rural consumption has upped, rural job creation has been allotted much less compared to revised estimates of the last fiscal), no thrust areas for IT and ITES thus undermining this major services component.
Overall, the Budget isn’t surprising, since there aren’t many surprises, considering the pandemic times. It indeed is market oriented, as is noted by stock indexes going rocket…

Coal and India in it’s Union Budget 2020-21. Is India really serious about its Climate Change commitments?

Centre’s Expenditure (figures in crore)




Actual 2018-19




Budget Estimate 2019-20




Revised Estimate 2019-20




Budget Estimate 2020-21




The breakup for this head is Rs. 819.98 crore for R&D, conservation, safety & infrastructure development in coal mines, and exploration of coal and lignite; Rs. 22.35 crore for coal mines pension scheme; and the remaining Rs. 40.28 crore is for the secretariat, statutory bodies and sub-ordinate bodies. The coal mines pension scheme allocation is the same as a social services developmental need and is covered under Labour, Employment and Skill Development. R&D’s main thrust area is promotion of clean coal technology and to identify coal blocks for coal to liquid projects. Conservation, safety and infrastructure’s emphasis is towards conservation of coal through protective works and safety improvement. The infrastructure component in coal field areas is development of road and rail network. Exploration of coal and lignite is to meet the demand for coal, including provisions for detailed drilling in n0n-Coal India Limited coal mining blocks (like the NTPC blocks) that would help the prospective investors in taking investment decisions regarding coal mining and reduction of time for preparing the mining plan. The allocation for the exploration of coal and lignite is Rs. 700 crore, which is to assess the coal availability to meet the sizable increase in the demand for coal. This scheme is to be implemented by the Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDIL). Also, this step would help build promoting the private investment in the coal mining industry. 

The Government has eased restrictions on foreign investment in coal mining, in an effort to attract more capital from abroad. The allocation for the Coal Ministry has seen a 5.4% reduction to Rs. 882.61 crore for the FY 2020-21, a dip from the revised estimates for the FY 2019-20 of Rs. 933.60 crore. While the expenditure was Rs. 1159.05 crore for 2019-20, the actual was Rs. 708.32 crore for 2018-19. This year, however, the major increase in the allocation was towards the central sector schemes, that are entirely and directly funded and executed by the central government. However, there has been an increase in investment in public enterprises, including Coal India Limited in FY 2020-21 that stands at Rs. 18467 crore over the revised estimate of Rs. 18121 crore in FY 2109-20, which is a rise by 1.91%. What is really surprising is the mining of dirty fuel/coal by CIL which has got an overall capital outlay of Rs. 9500 crore this year. Juxtaposing this allocation with the Finance Minister’s focus on closing down thermal plants that violate carbon emissions is a paradox in itself. 

For the thermal power plants that are in violation of the National Clean Air Program (NCAP with an allocation of Rs. 4400 crore for FY 2020-21), the Finance Minister has announced a closure of such plants. These plants that are old and whose carbon emissions are higher than the preset limit would be advised to close down and the land will be put to alternative energy purposes. On the mitigation of polluted air, the International Solar Alliance will help in SDGs, climate change, disaster resilience and the NDCs under the Paris Accord. Earlier, a total of 47.95 GW of thermal capacity missed the December 31 deadline to install Flue Gas Desulphurization (FDG) units to minimize SO2 emissions level. According to the five-year National Clean Air Action Plan, the Government plans to reduce by 20-30% the concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 by 2024, and according to the Finance Minister, the plan is India’s best effort basis and kicks off in 2021 on January 1. Interestingly, according to the Budget speech, the climate action targets under the 2015 Paris Accords were to be executed under the normal budgetary allocations. Also, according to the Paris Accords, India has committed to reduce by 2030 the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% over the 2005 levels. It has also pledged to generate 40% of India’s power capacity from non-fossil sources and create and additional carbon sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through afforestation by 2030. 

So, what the Budget does is provide a conflicting picture of furthering mining either by domestic players, or by inviting mine-cum-developers by way of FDI on the one hand and its commitment to mitigate pollution standards either by retiring old plants or switching to renewables on the other. These two avenues clash in principle and throws up a confused state of affairs in India’s contributions to Paris Accords of 2015. 

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Schematic Grothendieck Representation

A spectral Grothendieck representation Rep is said to be schematic if for every triple γ ≤ τ ≤ δ in Top(A), for every A in R^(Ring) we have a commutative diagram in R^:



If Rep is schematic, then, P : Top(A) → R^ is a presheaf with values in R^ over the lattice Top(A)o, for every A in R.

The modality is to restrict attention to Tors(Rep(A)); that is, a lattice in the usual sense; and hence this should be viewed as the commutative shadow of a suitable noncommutative theory.

For obtaining the complete lattice Q(A), a duality is expressed by an order-reversing bijection: (−)−1 : Q(A) → Q((Rep(A))o). (Rep(A))o is not a Grothendieck category. It is additive and has a projective generator; moreover, it is known to be a varietal category (also called triplable) in the sense that it has a projective regular generator P, it is co-complete and has kernel pairs with respect to the functor Hom(P, −), and moreover every equivalence relation in the category is a kernel pair. If a comparison functor is constructed via Hom(P, −) as a functor to the category of sets, it works well for the category of set-valued sheaves over a Grothendieck topology.

Now (−)−1 is defined as an order-reversing bijection between idempotent radicals on Rep(A) and (Rep(A))o, implying we write (Top(A))−1 for the image of Top(A) in Q((Rep( A))o). This is encoded in the exact sequence in Rep(A):

0 → ρ(M) → M → ρ−1(M) → 0

(reversed in (Rep(A))o). By restricting attention to hereditary torsion theories (kernel functors) when defining Tors(−), we introduce an asymmetry that breaks the duality because Top(A)−1 is not in Tors((Rep(A))op). If notationally, TT(G) is the complete lattice of torsion theories (not necessarily hereditary) of the category G; then (TT(G))−1 ≅ TT(Gop). Hence we may view Tors(G)−1 as a complete sublattice of TT(Gop).

The Code of Capital or the Legal Structure of Finance – How the Law Creates Wealth and Inequality with Katharina Pistor

In The Code of Capital: How the Law Creates Wealth and InequalityKatharina Pistoroffers an expansive analysis of the construction of capital, showing legal coding to be at the heart of this process. This is a welcome interdisciplinary contribution which attaches fresh dimensions to debates on the political economy of wealth and inequality and will be a valuable resource for anyone seeking to grapple with the formidable nature of global capital.

The economic and legal reforms coincided with the demise of the Iron Curtain and socialist governments, and were implemented in developing as well as emerging markets, and promised eventual benefits for everyone. But instead, contemporary levels of inequality are comparable to those that prevailed before the French Revolution. A standard response to such disparity is simply to hold ‘capitalism’ accountable. But Pistor argues that even to do just this, it is necessary to be cognisant of how capital is made. To do so is to resist simplifications in which capital is a thing, or a core feature of social relations between a proletariat and a bourgeoisie: ‘Against this background, one might even question whether it makes sense to bundle historical epochs that differ so fundamentally from one another under a single rubric of “capitalism”’.


The Polity Today

The Polity Today…

Image result for Jamia violence

Stifled and Suffocated Under Occupation,
Confined to a Life of Brazen Act of Annexation,
Subjected to a Toxicity by the Rest of the Confederacy,
Paying the Price for Some Cooked and Some Raw Conspiracy.

Counting Days and nights Cutoff from the Near and Dear Ones,
By the apathy and Atrophy of the Power that Runs,
Into a Corner and Forced Underground,
By the Despicable Vulgarity and Obscenity of the Dictatorial Sound.

Who’d Turn a Messiah to the Multiplying Affliction,
To Arrest the Basic Arithmetic of Division by Constriction,
To a Unity Imposed by Self-Rule and Determination,
By a Despot Shambolic and Ostentatious in Bringing Forth Malediction.

We are People With Indomitable Rights,
Sacrificed at the Altar of Rituals and Rites,
Chanted on by a Population that doesn’t seem to Care,
Legitimizing the Deeds of the Fundamentalists’ as an Internal Affair.

I, the Citizen, or You, the Citizen

Image result for curfew

Please cry for me India…
I, the citizen have lost my rights to be me,
I, the citizen have ceased to be,
I, the citizen have been stripped, raped, and burnt alive,
I, the citizen have been subject to justice denied,
I, the citizen have been alienated,
I, the citizen have been forcibly occupied,
I, the citizen have been living in constant fear,
I, the citizen have been subject to repeated smear,
I, the citizen have lost my right to express,
I, the citizen have my autonomy to suppress,
I, the citizen have my society divided,
I, the citizen have my politics lopsided,
I, the citizen are what you cast(e) me,
I, the citizen are what you class me,
Enough of this I, the citizen, for I shan’t be, what you prove me to be.
You, the citizen carve your own story,
You, the citizen, toy with my history,
You, the citizen decide what’s right,
You, the citizen have lost all foresight,
You, the citizen stifle my being,
You, the citizen compel me to fleeing,
You, the citizen regulate me with force,
You, the citizen admit, everything’s normal of course,
You, the citizen deny me free air,
You, the citizen snatch what’s my fair share,
You, the citizen dictate,
You, the citizen choose what’s my intimate,
You, the citizen force upon me your religion,
You, the citizen submit me to an unseen region,
Enough of this You, the Citizen, for WE the PEOPLE,
Will rise to dismantle,
What is yours to impose,
Won’t rest until you are deposed…

An Ode to a Silent Communicator…


With the setting and rising of the moon and the sun,
Shuffling back and forth in the derelict zone,
Mired in temporary infatuation and still on the run,
Waiting idly for the overwhelming attachment of what we don’t own.

Caught between the manic, the desirous and the anticipatory,
Playing by the gamble of this celestial cyclicity,
Stupefied in a hesitant, yet revelatory anxiety of the reconciliatory,
Calling upon to perpetually chasing along this periodicity.

Woken up to a reality of the ill-spraying wind,
To the lives torn asunder, and left to adrift,
Into the great chasm and the abyss of the chagrined,
Against the score of a deep silence, and the lyrically thrift…

How Long Do I?

How long do I smile through the tears
How long do I fake there are no fears
How long do I put my insecurities to sleep
How long do I lock away the hurt that’s so deep…
How long do I write the ledger of tragedy
How long do I hide what’s written under comedy
How long do I regret what’s forgotten
How long do I not regret what’s forgiven
How long do I look for stars in daylight
How long do I long for sun at midnight
How long do I curse my stars
How long do I hold them the cause of my scars
How long do I mourn
All along in this state of being forlorn…

Black Hole Entropy in terms of Mass. Note Quote.


If M-theory is compactified on a d-torus it becomes a D = 11 – d dimensional theory with Newton constant

GD = G11/Ld = l911/Ld —– (1)

A Schwartzschild black hole of mass M has a radius

Rs ~ M(1/(D-3)) GD(1/(D-3)) —– (2)

According to Bekenstein and Hawking the entropy of such a black hole is

S = Area/4GD —– (3)

where Area refers to the D – 2 dimensional hypervolume of the horizon:

Area ~ RsD-2 —– (4)


S ~ 1/GD (MGD)(D-2)/(D-3) ~ M(D-2)/(D-3) GD1/(D-3) —– (5)

From the traditional relativists’ point of view, black holes are extremely mysterious objects. They are described by unique classical solutions of Einstein’s equations. All perturbations quickly die away leaving a featureless “bald” black hole with ”no hair”. On the other hand Bekenstein and Hawking have given persuasive arguments that black holes possess thermodynamic entropy and temperature which point to the existence of a hidden microstructure. In particular, entropy generally represents the counting of hidden microstates which are invisible in a coarse grained description. An ultimate exact treatment of objects in matrix theory requires a passage to the infinite N limit. Unfortunately this limit is extremely difficult. For the study of Schwarzchild black holes, the optimal value of N (the value which is large enough to obtain an adequate description without involving many redundant variables) is of order the entropy, S, of the black hole.

Considering the minimum such value for N, we have

Nmin(S) = MRs = M(MGD)1/D-3 = S —– (6)

We see that the value of Nmin in every dimension is proportional to the entropy of the black hole. The thermodynamic properties of super Yang Mills theory can be estimated by standard arguments only if S ≤ N. Thus we are caught between conflicting requirements. For N >> S we don’t have tools to compute. For N ~ S the black hole will not fit into the compact geometry. Therefore we are forced to study the black hole using N = Nmin = S.

Matrix theory compactified on a d-torus is described by d + 1 super Yang Mills theory with 16 real supercharges. For d = 3 we are dealing with a very well known and special quantum field theory. In the standard 3+1 dimensional terminology it is U(N) Yang Mills theory with 4 supersymmetries and with all fields in the adjoint repersentation. This theory is very special in that, in addition to having electric/magnetic duality, it enjoys another property which makes it especially easy to analyze, namely it is exactly scale invariant.

Let us begin by considering it in the thermodynamic limit. The theory is characterized by a “moduli” space defined by the expectation values of the scalar fields φ. Since the φ also represents the positions of the original DO-branes in the non compact directions, we choose them at the origin. This represents the fact that we are considering a single compact object – the black hole- and not several disconnected pieces.

The equation of state of the system, defined by giving the entropy S as a function of temperature. Since entropy is extensive, it is proportional to the volume ∑3 of the dual torus. Furthermore, the scale invariance insures that S has the form

S = constant T33 —– (7)

The constant in this equation counts the number of degrees of freedom. For vanishing coupling constant, the theory is described by free quanta in the adjoint of U(N). This means that the number of degrees of freedom is ~ N2.

From the standard thermodynamic relation,

dE = TdS —– (8)

and the energy of the system is

E ~ N2T43 —– (9)

In order to relate entropy and mass of the black hole, let us eliminate temperature from (7) and (9).

S = N23((E/N23))3/4 —– (10)

Now the energy of the quantum field theory is identified with the light cone energy of the system of DO-branes forming the black hole. That is

E ≈ M2/N R —– (11)

Plugging (11) into (10)

S = N23(M2R/N23)3/4 —– (12)

This makes sense only when N << S, as when N >> S computing the equation of state is slightly trickier. At N ~ S, this is precisely the correct form for the black hole entropy in terms of the mass.