Fréchet Spaces and Presheave Morphisms.



A topological vector space V is both a topological space and a vector space such that the vector space operations are continuous. A topological vector space is locally convex if its topology admits a basis consisting of convex sets (a set A is convex if (1 – t) + ty ∈ A ∀ x, y ∈ A and t ∈ [0, 1].

We say that a locally convex topological vector space is a Fréchet space if its topology is induced by a translation-invariant metric d and the space is complete with respect to d, that is, all the Cauchy sequences are convergent.

A seminorm on a vector space V is a real-valued function p such that ∀ x, y ∈ V and scalars a we have:

(1) p(x + y) ≤ p(x) + p(y),

(2) p(ax) = |a|p(x),

(3) p(x) ≥ 0.

The difference between the norm and the seminorm comes from the last property: we do not ask that if x ≠ 0, then p(x) > 0, as we would do for a norm.

If {pi}{i∈N} is a countable family of seminorms on a topological vector space V, separating points, i.e. if x ≠ 0, there is an i with pi(x) ≠ 0, then ∃ a translation-invariant metric d inducing the topology, defined in terms of the {pi}:

d(x, y) = ∑i=1 1/2i pi(x – y)/(1 + pi(x – y))

The following characterizes Fréchet spaces, giving an effective method to construct them using seminorms.

A topological vector space V is a Fréchet space iff it satisfies the following three properties:

  • it is complete as a topological vector space;
  • it is a Hausdorff space;
  • its topology is induced by a countable family of seminorms {pi}{i∈N}, i.e., U ⊂ V is open iff for every u ∈ U ∃ K ≥ 0 and ε > 0 such that {v|pk(u – v) < ε ∀ k ≤ K} ⊂ U.

We say that a sequence (xn) in V converges to x in the Fréchet space topology defined by a family of seminorms iff it converges to x with respect to each of the given seminorms. In other words, xn → x, iff pi(xn – x) → 0 for each i.

Two families of seminorms defined on the locally convex vector space V are said to be equivalent if they induce the same topology on V.

To construct a Fréchet space, one typically starts with a locally convex topological vector space V and defines a countable family of seminorms pk on V inducing its topology and such that:

  1. if x ∈ V and pk(x) = 0 ∀ k ≥ 0, then x = 0 (separation property);
  2. if (xn) is a sequence in V which is Cauchy with respect to each seminorm, then ∃ x ∈ V such that (xn) converges to x with respect to each seminorm (completeness property).

The topology induced by these seminorms turns V into a Fréchet space; property (1) ensures that it is Hausdorff, while the property (2) guarantees that it is complete. A translation-invariant complete metric inducing the topology on V can then be defined as above.

The most important example of Fréchet space, is the vector space C(U), the space of smooth functions on the open set U ⊆ Rn or more generally the vector space C(M), where M is a differentiable manifold.

For each open set U ⊆ Rn (or U ⊂ M), for each K ⊂ U compact and for each multi-index I , we define

||ƒ||K,I := supx∈K |(∂|I|/∂xI (ƒ)) (x)|, ƒ ∈ C(U)

Each ||.||K,I defines a seminorm. The family of seminorms obtained by considering all of the multi-indices I and the (countable number of) compact subsets K covering U satisfies the properties (1) and (1) detailed above, hence makes C(U) into a Fréchet space. The sets of the form

|ƒ ∈ C(U)| ||ƒ – g||K,I < ε

with fixed g ∈ C(U), K ⊆ U compact, and multi-index I are open sets and together with their finite intersections form a basis for the topology.

All these constructions and results can be generalized to smooth manifolds. Let M be a smooth manifold and let U be an open subset of M. If K is a compact subset of U and D is a differential operator over U, then

pK,D(ƒ) := supx∈K|D(ƒ)|

is a seminorm. The family of all the seminorms  pK,D with K and D varying among all compact subsets and differential operators respectively is a separating family of seminorms endowing CM(U) with the structure of a complete locally convex vector space. Moreover there exists an equivalent countable family of seminorms, hence CM(U) is a Fréchet space. Let indeed {Vj} be a countable open cover of U by open coordinate subsets, and let, for each j, {Kj,i} be a countable family of compact subsets of Vj such that ∪i Kj,i = Vj. We have the countable family of seminorms

pK,I := supx∈K |(∂|I|/∂xI (ƒ)) (x)|, K ∈  {Kj,i}

inducing the topology. CM(U) is also an algebra: the product of two smooth functions being a smooth function.

A Fréchet space V is said to be a Fréchet algebra if its topology can be defined by a countable family of submultiplicative seminorms, i.e., a countable family {qi)i∈N of seminorms satisfying

qi(ƒg) ≤qi (ƒ) qi(g) ∀ i ∈ N

Let F be a sheaf of real vector spaces over a manifold M. F is a Fréchet sheaf if:

(1)  for each open set U ⊆ M, F(U) is a Fréchet space;

(2)  for each open set U ⊆ M and for each open cover {Ui} of U, the topology of F(U) is the initial topology with respect to the restriction maps F(U) → F(Ui), that is, the coarsest topology making the restriction morphisms continuous.

As a consequence, we have the restriction map F(U) → F(V) (V ⊆ U) as continuous. A morphism of sheaves ψ: F → F’ is said to be continuous if the map F(U) → F'(U) is open for each open subset U ⊆ M.

Velocity of Money


The most basic difference between the demand theory of money and exchange theory of money lies in the understanding of quantity equation

M . v = P . Y —– (1)

Here M is money supply, P is price and Y is real output; in addition, v is constant velocity of money. The demand theory understands that (1) reflects the needs of the economic individual for money, not only the meaning of exchange. Under the assumption of liquidity preference, the demand theory introduces nominal interest rate into demand function of money, thus exhibiting more economic pictures than traditional quantity theory does. Let us, however concentrate on the economic movement through linearization of exchange theory emphasizing exchange medium function of money.

Let us assume that the central bank provides a very small supply M of money, which implies that the value PY of products manufactured by the producer will be unable to be realized only through one transaction. The producer has to suspend the transaction until the purchasers possess money at hand again, which will elevate the transaction costs and even result in the bankruptcy of the producer. Then, will the producer do nothing and wait for the bankruptcy?

In reality, producers would rather adjust sales value through raising or lowering the price or amount of product to attempt the realization of a maximal sales value M than reserve the stock of products to subject the sale to the limit of velocity of money. In other words, producer would adjust price or real output to control the velocity of money, since the velocity of money can influence the realization of the product value.

Every time money changes hands, a transaction is completed; thus numerous turnovers of money for an individual during a given period of time constitute a macroeconomic exchange ∑ipiYi if the prices pi can be replaced by an average price P, then we can rewrite the value of exchange as ∑ipiYi = P . Y. In a real economy, the producer will manage to make P . Y close the money supply M as much as possible through adjusting the real output or its price.

For example, when a retailer comes to a strange community to sell her commodities, she always prefers to make a price through trial and error. If she finds that higher price can still promote the sales amount, then she will choose to continue raising the price until the sales amount less changes; on the other hand, if she confirms that lower price can create the more sales amount, then she will decrease the price of the commodity. Her strategy of pricing depends on price elasticity of demand for the commodity. However, the maximal value of the sales amount is determined by how much money the community can supply, thus the pricing of the retailer will make her sales close this maximal sale value, namely money for consumption of the community. This explains why the same commodity can always be sold at a higher price in the rich area.

Equation (1) is not an identical equation but an equilibrium state of exchange process in an economic system. Evidently, the difference M –  P . Y  between the supply of money and present sales value provides a vacancy for elevating sales value, in other words, the supply of money acts as the role of a carrying capacity for sales value. We assume that the vacancy is in direct proportion to velocity of increase of the sales value, and then derive a dynamical quantity equation

M(t) - P(t) . Y(t)  =  k . d[P(t) . Y(t)]/d(t) —– (2)

Here k is a positive constant and expresses a characteristic time with which the vacancy is filled. This is a speculated basic dynamical quantity equation of exchange by money. In reality, the money supply M(t) can usually be given; (2) is actually an evolution equation of sales value P(t)Y(t) , which can uniquely determine an evolving path of the price.

The role of money in (2) can be seen that money is only a medium of commodity exchange, just like the chopsticks for eating and the soap for washing. All needs for money are or will be order to carry out the commodity exchange. The behavior of holding money of the economic individuals implies a potential exchange in the future, whether for speculation or for the preservation of wealth, but it cannot directly determine the present price because every realistic price always comes from the commodity exchange, and no exchange and no price. In other words, what we are concerned with is not the reason of money generation, but form of money generation, namely we are concerned about money generation as a function of time rather than it as a function of income or interest rate. The potential needs for money which you can use various reasons to explain cannot contribute to price as long as the money does not participate in the exchange, thus the money supply not used to exchange will not occur in (2).

On the other hand, the change in money supply would result in a temporary vacancy of sales value, although sales value will also be achieved through exchanging with the new money supply at the next moment, since the price or sales volume may change. For example, a group of residents spend M(t) to buy houses of P(t)Y(t) through the loan at time t, evidently M(t) = P(t)Y(t). At time t+1, another group of residents spend M(t+1) to buy houses of P(t+1)Y(t+1) through the loan, and M(t+1) = P(t+1)Y(t+1). Thus, we can consider M(t+1) – M(t) as increase in money supply, and this increase can cause a temporary vacancy of sales value M(t+1) – P(t)Y(t). It is this vacancy that encourages sellers to try to maximize sales through adjusting the price by trial and error and also real estate developers to increase or decrease their housing production. Ultimately, new prices and production are produced and the exchange is completed at the level of M(t+1) = P(t+1)Y(t+1). In reality, the gap between M(t+1) and M(t) is often much smaller than the vacancy M(t+1) – P(t)Y(t), therefore we can approximately consider M(t+1) as M(t) if the money supply function M(t) is continuous and smooth.

However, it is necessary to emphasize that (2) is not a generation equation of demand function P(Y), which means (2) is a unique equation of determination of price (path), since, from the perspective of monetary exchange theory, the evolution of price depends only on money supply and production and arises from commodity exchange rather than relationship between supply and demand of products in the traditional economics where the meaning of the exchange is not obvious. In addition, velocity of money is not contained in this dynamical quantity equation, but its significance PY/M will be endogenously exhibited by the system.

Causal Isomorphism as a Diffeomorphism. Some further Rumination on Philosophy of Science. Thought of the Day 82.0

Let (M, gab) and (M′, g′ab) be (temporally oriented) relativistic spacetimes that are both future- and past-distinguishing, and let φ : M → M′ be a ≪-causal isomorphism. Then φ is a diffeomorphism and preserves gab up to a conformal factor; i.e. φ⋆(g′ab) is conformally equivalent to gab.

Under the stated assumptions, φ must be a homeomorphism. If a spacetime (M, gab) is not just past and future distinguishing, but strongly causal, then one can explicitly characterize its (manifold) topology in terms of the relation ≪. In this case, a subset O ⊆ M is open iff, ∀ points p in O, ∃ points q and r in O such that q ≪ p ≪ r and I+(q) ∩ I(r) ⊆ O (Hawking and Ellis). So a ≪-causal isomorphism between two strongly causal spacetimes must certainly be a homeomorphism. Then one invokes a result of Hawking, King, and McCarthy that asserts, in effect, that any continuous ≪-causal isomorphism must be smooth and must preserve the metric up to a conformal factor.


The following example shows that the proposition fails if the initial restriction on causal structure is weakened to past distinguishability or to future distinguishability alone. We give the example in a two-dimensional version to simplify matters. Start with the manifold R2 together with the Lorentzian metric

gab = (d(at)(db)x) − (sinh2t)(dax)(dbx)

where t, x are global projection coordinates on R2. Next, form a vertical cylinder by identifying the point with coordinates (t, x) with the one having coordinates (t, x + 2). Finally, excise two closed half lines – the sets with respective coordinates {(t, x): x = 0 and t ≥ 0} and {(t, x): x = 1 and t ≥ 0}. Figure shows, roughly, what the null cones look like at every point. (The future direction at each point is taken to be the “upward one.”) The exact form of the metric is not important here. All that is important is the indicated qualitative behavior of the null cones. Along the (punctured) circle C where t = 0, the vector fields (∂/∂t)a and (∂/∂x)a both qualify as null. But as one moves upward or downward from there, the cones close. There are no closed timelike (or null) curves in this spacetime. Indeed, it is future distinguishing because of the excisions. But it fails to be past distinguishing because I(p) = I(q) for all points p and q on C. For all points p there, I(p) is the entire region below C. Now let φ be the bijection of the spacetime onto itself that leaves the “lower open half” fixed but reverses the position of the two upper slabs. Though φ is discontinuous along C, it is a ≪-causal isomorphism. This is the case because every point below C has all points in both upper slabs in its ≪-future.


Let (S, CS) and (M, CM) be manifolds of dimension k and n, respectively, with 1 ≤ k ≤ n. A smooth map : S → M is said to be an imbedding if it satisfies the following three conditions.

(I1) Ψ is injective.

(I2) At all points p in S, the associated (push-forward) linear map (Ψp) : Sp → MΨ(p) is injective.

(I3) ∀ open sets O1 in S, Ψ[O1] = [S] ∩ O2 for some open set O2 in M. (Equivalently, the inverse map Ψ−1 : Ψ[S] → S is continuous with respect to the relative topology on [S].)

Several comments about the definition are in order. First, given any point p in S, (I2) implies that (Ψp)[Sp] is a k-dimensional subspace of MΨ(p). So the condition cannot be satisfied unless k ≤ n. Second, the three conditions are independent of one another. For example, the smooth map Ψ : R → R2 defined by (s) = (cos(s), sin(s)) satisfies (I2) and (I3) but is not injective. It wraps R round and round in a circle. On the other hand, the smooth map : R → R defined by (s) = s3 satisfies (I1) and (I3) but is not an imbedding because (Ψ0) : R0 → R0 is not injective. (Here R0 is the tangent space to the manifold R at the point 0). Finally, a smooth map : S → M can satisfy (I1) and (I2) but still have an image that “bunches up on itself.” It is precisely this possibility that is ruled out by condition (I3). Consider, for example, a map : R → R2 whose image consists of part of the image of the curve y = sin(1/x) smoothly joined to the segment {(0, y) : y < 1}, as in the figure below. It satisfies conditions (I1) and (I2) but is not an imbedding because we can find an open interval O1 in R such that given any open set O2 in R2, Ψ[O1] ≠ O2 ∩ Ψ[R].


Suppose(S, CS) and (M, CM) are manifolds with S ⊆ M. We say that (S, CS) is an imbedded submanifold of (M, CM) if the identity map id: S → M is an imbedding. If, in addition, k = n − 1 (where k and n are the dimensions of the two manifolds), we say that (S, CS) is a hypersurface in (M, CM). Let (S, CS) be a k-dimensional imbedded submanifold of the n-dimensional manifold (M, CM), and let p be a point in S. We need to distinguish two senses in which one can speak of “tensors at p.” There are tensors over the vector space Sp (call them S-tensors at p) and ones over the vector space Mp (call them M-tensors at p). So, for example, an S-vector ξ ̃a at p makes assignments to maps of the form f ̃: O ̃ → R where O ̃ is a subset of S that is open in the topology induced by CS, and f ̃ is smooth relative to CS. In contrast, an M-vector ξa at p makes assignments to maps of the form f : O → R where O is a subset of M that is open in the topology induced by CM, and f is smooth relative to CM. Our first task is to consider the relation between S-tensors at p and M-tensors there.

Let us say that ξa ∈ (Mp)a is tangent to S if ξa ∈ (idp)[(Sp)a]. (This makes sense. We know that (idp)[(Sp)a] is a k-dimensional subspace of (Mp)a; ξa either belongs to that subspace or it does not.) Let us further say that ηa in (Mp)a is normal to S if ηaξa =0 ∀ ξa ∈ (Mp)a that are tangent to S. Each of these classes of vectors has a natural vector space structure. The space of vectors ξa ∈ (Mp)a tangent to S has dimension k. The space of co-vectors ηa ∈ (Mp)a normal to S has dimension (n − k).

Disjointed Regularity in Open Classes of Elementary Topology


Let x, y, … denote first-order structures in St𝜏, x ≈ y will denote isomorphism.

x ∼n,𝜏 y means that there is a sequence 0 ≠ I0 ⊆ …. ⊆ In of sets of 𝜏-partial isomorphism of finite domain so that, for i < j ≤ n, f ∈ Ii and a ∈ x (respectively, b ∈ y), there is g ∈ Ij such that g ⊇ f and a ∈ Dom(g) (respectively, b ∈ Im(g)). The later is called the extension property.

x ∼𝜏 y means the above holds for an infinite chain 0 ≠ I0 ⊆ …. ⊆ In ⊆ …

Fraïssé’s characterization of elementary equivalence says that for finite relational vocabularies: x ≡ y iff x ∼n,𝜏 y. To have it available for vocabularies containing function symbols add the complexity of terms in atomic formulas to the quantifier rank. It is well known that for countable x, y : x ∼𝜏 y implies x ≈ y.

Given a vocabulary 𝜏 let 𝜏 be a disjoint renaming of 𝜏. If x, y ∈ St𝜏 have the same power, let y be an isomorphic copy of y sharing the universe with x and renamed to be of type 𝜏. In this context, (x, y) will denote the 𝜏 ∪ 𝜏-structure that results of expanding x with the relations of y.

Lemma: There is a vocabulary 𝜏+ ⊇ 𝜏 ∪ 𝜏 such that for each finite vocabulary 𝜏0 ⊆ 𝜏 there is a sequence of elementary classes 𝛥1 ⊇ 𝛥2 ⊇ 𝛥3 ⊇ …. in St𝜏+ such that if 𝜋 = 𝜋𝜏+,𝜏∪𝜏 then (1) 𝜋(𝛥𝑛) = {(x,y) : |x| = |y| ≥ 𝜔, x ≡n,𝜏0 y}, (2) 𝜋(⋂n 𝛥n) = {(x, y) : |x| = |y| ≥ 𝜔, x ∼𝜏0 y}. Moreover, ⋂n𝛥n is the reduct of an elementary class.

Proof. Let 𝛥 be the class of structures (x, y, <, a, I) where < is a discrete linear order with minimum but no maximum and I codes for each c ≤ a a family Ic = {I(c, i, −, −)}i∈x of partial 𝜏0-𝜏0–isomorphisms from x into y, such that for c < c’ ≤ a : Ic ⊆ Ic and the extension property holds. Describe this by a first-order sentence 𝜃𝛥 of type 𝜏+ ⊇ 𝜏0 ∪ 𝜏0 and set 𝛥𝑛 = ModL(𝜃𝛥 ∧ ∃≥n x(x ≤ a)}. Then condition (1) in the Lemma is granted by Fraïssé’s characterization and the fact that x being (2) is granted because (x, y, <, a, I) ∈ ⋂n𝛥n iff < contains an infinite increasing 𝜔-chain below a, a ∑11 condition.

A topology on St𝜏 is invariant if its open (closed) classes are closed under isomorphic structures. Of course, it is superfluous if we identify isomorphic structures.

Theorem: Let Γ be a regular compact topology finer than the elementary topology on each class St𝜏 such that the countable structures are dense in St𝜏 and reducts and renamings are continuous for these topologies. Then Γ𝜏 is the elementary topology ∀ 𝜏.

Proof: We show that any pair of disjoint closed classes C1, C2 of Γ𝜏 may be separated by an elementary class. Assume this is not the case since Ci are compact in the topology Γ𝜏 then they are compact for the elementary topology and, by regularity of the latter, ∃ xi ∈ Ci such that x1 ≡ x2 in L𝜔𝜔(𝜏). The xi must be infinite, otherwise they would be isomorphic contradicting the disjointedness of the Ci. By normality of Γ𝜏, there are towers Ui ⊆ Ci ⊆ Ui ⊆ Ci, i = 1,2, separating the Ci with Ui, Ui open and Ci, Ci closed in Γ𝜏 and disjoint. Let I be a first-order sentence of type 𝜏 ⊇ 𝜏 such that (z, ..) |= I ⇔ z is infinite, and let π be the corresponding reduct operation. For fixed n ∈ ω and the finite 𝜏0  ⊆ 𝜏, let t be a first-order sentence describing the common ≡n,𝜏0 – equivalence class of x1, x2. As,

(xi,..) ∈ Mod𝜏(I) ∩ π-1 Mod(t) ∩ π-1Ui, i = 1, 2,..

and this class is open in Γ𝜏‘ by continuity of π, then by the density hypothesis there are countable xi ∈ Ui , i = 1, 2, such that x1n,𝜏 x2. Thus for some expansion of (x1, x2),

(x, x,..) ∈ 𝛥n,𝜏0 ∩ 𝜋1−1(𝐶1) ∩ (𝜌𝜋2)−1(C2) —– (1)

where 𝛥𝑛,𝜏0 is the class of Lemma, 𝜋1, 𝜋2 are reducts, and 𝜌 is a renaming:

𝜋1(x1, x2, …) = x1 𝜋1 : St𝜏+ → St𝜏∪𝜏 → St𝜏

𝜋2(x1, x2, …) = x2 𝜋2 : St𝜏+ → St𝜏∪𝜏 → St𝜏

𝜌(x2) = x2 𝜌 : St𝜏 → St𝜏

Since the classes (1) are closed by continuity of the above functors then ⋂n𝛥n,𝜏0 ∩ 𝜋1−1(C1) ∩ (𝜌𝜋2)−1(C2) is non-emtpy by compactness of Γ𝜏+. But ⋂n𝛥n,𝜏0 = 𝜋(V) with V elementary of type 𝜏++ ⊇ 𝜏+. Then

V ∩ π-1π1-1(U1) ∩ π-1(ρπ2)-1 (U2) ≠ 0

is open for ΓL++ and the density condition it must contain a countable structure (x1, x*2, ..). Thus (x1, x*2, ..) ∈ ∩n 𝛥𝑛,𝜏0, with xi ∈ Ui ⊆ Ci. It follows that x1 ~𝜏0 x2 and thus x1 |𝜏0 ≈ x2 |𝜏0. Let δ𝜏0 be a first-order sentence of type 𝜏 ∪ 𝜏* ∪{h} such that (x, y*, h) |= δ𝜏0 ⇔ h : x |𝜏0 ≈ y|𝜏0. By compactness,

(∩𝜏0fin𝜏 Mod𝜏∪𝜏*∪{f}𝜏0)) ∩ π1-1(C1) ∩ (ρπ2)-1(C2) ≠ 0

and we have h : x1 ≈ x2, xi ∈ Ci, contradicting the disjointedness of Ci. Finally, if C is a closed class of Γ𝜏 and x ∉ C, clΓ𝜏{x} is disjoint from C by regularity of Γ𝜏. Then clΓ𝜏{x} and C may be separated by open classes of elementary topology, which implies C is closed in this topology.

Expressivity of Bodies: The Synesthetic Affinity Between Deleuze and Merleau-Ponty. Thought of the Day 54.0


It is in the description of the synesthetic experience that Deleuze finds resources for his own theory of sensation. And it is in this context that Deleuze and Merleau-Ponty are closest. For Deleuze sees each sensation as a dynamic evolution, sensation is that which passes from one ‘order’ to another, from one ‘level’ to another. This means that each sensation is at diverse levels, of different orders, or in several domains….it is characteristic of sensation to encompass a constitutive difference of level and a plurality of constituting domains. What this means for Deleuze is that sensations cannot be isolated in a particular field of sense; these fields interpenetrate, so that sensation jumps from one domain to another, becoming-color in the visual field or becoming-music on the auditory level. For Deleuze (and this goes beyond what Merleau-Ponty explicitly says), sensation can flow from one field to another, because it belongs to a vital rhythm which subtends these fields, or more precisely, which gives rise to the different fields of sense as it contracts and expands, as it moves between different levels of tension and dilation.

If, as Merleau-Ponty says (and Deleuze concurs), synesthetic perception is the rule, then the act of recognition that identifies each sensation with a determinate quality or sense and operates their synthesis within the unity of an object, hides from us the complexity of perception, and the heterogeneity of the perceiving body. Synesthesia shows that the unity of the body is constituted in the transversal communication of the senses. But these senses are not pre given in the body; they correspond to sensations that move between levels of bodily energy – finding different expression in each other. To each of these levels corresponds a particular way of living space and time; hence the simultaneity in depth that is experienced in vision is not the lateral coexistence of touch, and the continuous, sensuous and overlapping extension of touch is lost in the expansion of vision. This heterogenous multiplicity of levels, or senses, is open to communication; each expresses its embodiment in its own way, and each expresses differently the contents of the other senses.

Thus sensation is not the causal process, but the communication and synchronization of senses within my body, and of my body with the sensible world; it is, as Merleau-Ponty says, a communion. And despite frequent appeal in the Phenomenology of Perception to the sameness of the body and to the common world to ground the diversity of experience, the appeal here goes in a different direction. It is the differences of rhythm and of becoming, which characterize the sensible world, that open it up to my experience. For the expressive body is itself such a rhythm, capable of synchronizing and coexisting with the others. And Merleau-Ponty refers to this relationship between the body and the world as one of sympathy. He is close here to identifying the lived body with the temporization of existence, with a particular rhythm of duration; and he is close to perceiving the world as the coexistence of such temporalizations, such rhythms. The expressivity of the lived body implies a singular relation to others, and a different kind of intercorporeity than would be the case for two merely physical bodies. This intercorporeity should be understood as inter-temporality. Merleau-Ponty proposes this at the end of the chapter on perception in his Phenomenology of Perception, when he says,

But two temporalities are not mutually exclusive as are two consciousnesses, because each one knows itself only by projecting itself into the present where they can interweave.

Thus our bodies as different rhythms of duration can coexist and communicate, can synchronize to each other – in the same way that my body vibrated to the colors of the sensible world. But, in the case of two lived bodies, the synchronization occurs on both sides – with the result that I can experience an internal resonance with the other when the experiences harmonize, or the shattering disappointment of a  miscommunication when the attempt fails. The experience of coexistence is hence not a guarantee of communication or understanding, for this communication must ultimately be based on our differences as expressive bodies and singular durations. Our coexistence calls forth an attempt, which is the intuition.

Banach Spaces


Some things in linear algebra are easier to see in infinite dimensions, i.e. in Banach spaces. Distinctions that seem pedantic in finite dimensions clearly matter in infinite dimensions.

The category of Banach spaces considers linear spaces and continuous linear transformations between them. In a finite dimensional Euclidean space, all linear transformations are continuous, but in infinite dimensions a linear transformation is not necessarily continuous.

The dual of a Banach space V is the space of continuous linear functions on V. Now we can see examples of where not only is V* not naturally isomorphic to V, it’s not isomorphic at all.

For any real p > 1, let q be the number such that 1/p  + 1/q = 1. The Banach space Lp is defined to be the set of (equivalence classes of) Lebesgue integrable functions f such that the integral of ||f||p is finite. The dual space of Lp is Lq. If p does not equal 2, then these two spaces are different. (If p does equal 2, then so does qL2 is a Hilbert space and its dual is indeed the same space.)

In the finite dimensional case, a vector space V is isomorphic to its second dual V**. In general, V can be embedded into V**, but V** might be a larger space. The embedding of V in V** is natural, both in the intuitive sense and in the formal sense of natural transformations. We can turn an element of V into a linear functional on linear functions on V as follows.

Let v be an element of V and let f be an element of V*. The action of v on f is simply fv. That is, v acts on linear functions by letting them act on it.

This shows that some elements of V** come from evaluation at elements of V, but there could be more. Returning to the example of Lebesgue spaces above, the dual of L1 is L, the space of essentially bounded functions. But the dual of L is larger than L1. That is, one way to construct a continuous linear functional on bounded functions is to multiply them by an absolutely integrable function and integrate. But there are other ways to construct linear functionals on L.

A Banach space V is reflexive if the natural embedding of V in V** is an isomorphism. For p > 1, the spaces Lp are reflexive.

Suppose that X is a Banach space. For simplicity, we assume that X is a real Banach space, though the results can be adapted to the complex case in the straightforward manner. In the following, B(x0,ε) stands for the closed ball of radius ε centered at x0 while B◦(x0,ε) stands for the open ball, and S(x0,ε) stands for the corresponding sphere.

Let Q be a bounded operator on X. Since we will be interested in the hyperinvariant subspaces of Q, we can assume without loss of generality that Q is one-to-one and has dense range, as otherwise ker Q or Range Q would be hyperinvariant for Q. By {Q}′ we denote the commutant of Q.

Fix a point x0 ≠ 0 in X and a positive real ε<∥x0∥. Let K= Q−1B(x0,ε). Clearly, K is a convex closed set. Note that 0 ∉ K and K≠ ∅ because Q has dense range. Let d = infK||z||, then d > 0. If X is reflexive, then there exists z ∈ K with ||z|| = d, such a vector is called a minimal vector for x0, ε and Q. Even without reflexivity condition, however, one can always find y ∈ K with ||y|| ≤ 2d, such a y will be referred to as a 2-minimal vector for x0, ε and Q.

The set K ∩ B(0, d) is the set of all minimal vectors, in general this set may be empty. If z is a minimal vector, since z ∈ K = Q−1B(x0, ε) then Qz ∈ B(x0, ε). As z is an element of minimal norm in K then, in fact, Qz ∈ S(x0, ε). Since Q is one-to-one, we have

QB(0, d) ∩ B(x0, ε) = Q B(0, d) ∩ K) ⊆ S(x0, ε).

It follows that QB(0,d) and B◦(x0,ε) are two disjoint convex sets. Since one of them has non-empty interior, they can be separated by a continuous linear functional. That is, there exists a functional f with ||f|| = 1 and a positive real c such that f|QB(0,d)  ≤ c and f|B◦(x0,ε) ≥ c. By continuity, f|B(x0,ε) ≥ c. We say that f is a minimal functional for x0, ε, and Q.

We claim that f(x0) ≥ ε. Indeed, for every x with ||x|| ≤ 1 we have x0 − εx ∈ B(x0,ε). It follows that f(x0 − εx) ≥ c, so that f(x0) ≥ c + εf(x). Taking sup over all x with ||x|| ≤ 1 we get f(x0) ≥ c + ε||f|| ≥ ε.

Observe that the hyperplane Qf = c separates K and B(0, d). Indeed, if z ∈ B(0,d), then (Qf)(z) = f(Qz) ≤ c, and if z ∈ K then Qz ∈ B(x0,ε) so that (Q∗f)(z) = f(Qz) ≥ c. For every z with ||z|| ≤ 1

we have dz ∈ B(0,d), so that (Qf)(dz) ≤ c, it follows that Qf ≤ c/d

On the other hand, for every δ > 0 there exists z ∈ K with ||z|| ≤ d+δ, then (Qf)(z) ≥ c ≥ c/(d+δ) ||z||, whence ||Qf|| ≥ c/(d+δ) . It follows that

||Q∗f|| = c/d.

For every z ∈ K we have (Qf)(z) ≥ c = d ||Qf||. In particular, if y is a 2-minimal vector then

(Qf)(y) ≥ 1/2 Qf ||y||….

From Vector Spaces to Categories. Part 6.


We began by thinking of categories as “posets with extra arrows”. This analogy gives excellent intuition for the general facts about adjoint functors. However, our intuition from posets is insufficient to actually prove anything about adjoint functors.

To complete the proofs we will switch to a new analogy between categories and vector spaces. Let V be a vector space over a field K and let V ∗ be the dual space consisting of K-linear functions V → K. Now consider any K-bilinear function ⟨−,−⟩ ∶ V × V → K. We say that the function ⟨−,−⟩ is non-degenerate in both coordinates if we have

⟨u1,v⟩ = ⟨u2,v⟩ ∀ v ∈ V ⇒ u1 = u2, ⟨u,v1⟩ = ⟨u,v2⟩ ∀ u ∈ V ⇒ v1 = v2

We say that two K-linear operators L ∶ V ⇄ V ∶ R define an adjunction with respect to ⟨−, −⟩ if, ∀ vectors u,v ∈ V, we have

⟨u, R(v)⟩ = ⟨L(u), v⟩

Uniqueness of Adjoint Operators. Let L ⊣ R be an adjoint pair of operators with respect to a non-degenerate bilinear function ⟨−, −⟩ ∶ V × V → K. Then each of L and R determines

the other uniquely.

Proof: To show that R determines L, suppose that L′ ⊣ R is another adjoint pair. Thus, ∀ vectors u,v ∈ V we have

⟨L(u), v⟩ = ⟨u, R(v)⟩ = ⟨L′(u), v⟩

Now consider any vector u ∈ V. The non-degeneracy of ⟨−, −⟩ tells us that

⟨L(u), v⟩ = ⟨L′(u), v⟩ ∀ v ∈ V ⇒ L(u) = L′(u)

and since this is true ∀ u ∈ V we conclude that L = L′

RAPL for Operators:

Suppose that the function ⟨−, −⟩ ∶ V × V → K is non-degenerate and continuous. Now let T ∶ V → V be any linear operator. If T has a left or a right adjoint, then T is continuous.


Suppose that T ∶ V → V has a left adjoint L ⊣ T, and suppose that the sequence of vectors vi ∈ V has a limit limivi ∈ V. Furthermore, suppose that the limit limiT(vi) ∈ V exists. Then for each u ∈ V, the continuity of ⟨−, −⟩ in the second coordinate tells us that

⟨u, T (limivi)⟩ = ⟨L(u), limivi

= limi⟨L(u), vi

= limi⟨u,T(vi)⟩

= ⟨u, limiT (vi)⟩

Since this is true for all u ∈ V, non-degeneracy gives

T (limivi) = limiT (vi)

The theorem can be made rigorous if we work with topological vector spaces. If (V, ∥ − ∥) is a normed (real or complex) vector space, then an operator T ∶ V → V is bounded if and only if it is continuous. Furthermore, if (V,⟨−,−⟩) is a Hilbert space then an operator T ∶ V → V having an adjoint is necessarily bounded, hence continuous. Many theorems of category have direct analogues in functional analysis. After all, Grothendieck began as a functional analyst.

We can summarize these two results as follows. Let ⟨−,−⟩ ∶ V ×V → K be a K-bilinear function. Then for each vector v ∈ V we have two elements of the dual space Hv, Hv ∈ V defined by

Hv ∶= ⟨v,−⟩ ∶ V → K,

Hv ∶= ⟨−,v⟩ ∶ V → K

The mappings v ↦ Hv and v ↦ Hv thus define two K-linear functions from V to V : H(−) ∶V → V and H(−) ∶ V → V

Furthermore, if the function is ⟨−,−⟩ is non-degenerate and continuous then the functions H(−), H(−) ∶ V → V are both injective and continuous.

the hom bifunctor

HomC(−,−) ∶ Cop × C → Set behaves like a “non-degenerate and continuous bilinear function”……