Without Explosions, WE Would NOT Exist!


The matter and radiation in the universe gets hotter and hotter as we go back in time towards the initial quantum state, because it was compressed into a smaller volume. In this Hot Big Bang epoch in the early universe, we can use standard physical laws to examine the processes going on in the expanding mixture of matter and radiation. A key feature is that about 300,000 years after the start of the Hot Big Bang epoch, nuclei and electrons combined to form atoms. At earlier times when the temperature was higher, atoms could not exist, as the radiation then had so much energy it disrupted any atoms that tried to form into their constituent parts (nuclei and electrons). Thus at earlier times matter was ionized, consisting of negatively charged electrons moving independently of positively charged atomic nuclei. Under these conditions, the free electrons interact strongly with radiation by Thomson scattering. Consequently matter and radiation were tightly coupled in equilibrium at those times, and the Universe was opaque to radiation. When the temperature dropped through the ionization temperature of about 4000K, atoms formed from the nuclei and electrons, and this scattering ceased: the Universe became very transparent. The time when this transition took place is known as the time of decoupling – it was the time when matter and radiation ceased to be tightly coupled to each other, at a redshift zdec ≃ 1100 (Scott Dodelson (Auth.)-Modern Cosmology-Academic Press). By

μbar ∝ S−3, μrad ∝ S−4, Trad ∝ S−1 —– (1)

The scale factor S(t) obeys the Raychaudhuri equation

3S ̈/S = -1/2 κ(μ +3p/c2) + Λ —– (2)

where κ is the gravitational constant and Λ the cosmological constant.

, the universe was radiation dominated (μrad ≫ μmat) at early times and matter dominated (μrad ≪ μmat) at late times; matter-radiation density equality occurred significantly before decoupling (the temperature Teq when this equality occurred was Teq ≃ 104K; at that time the scale factor was Seq ≃ 104S0, where S0 is the present-day value). The dynamics of both the background model and of perturbations about that model differ significantly before and after Seq.

Radiation was emitted by matter at the time of decoupling, thereafter travelling freely to us through the intervening space. When it was emitted, it had the form of blackbody radiation, because this is a consequence of matter and radiation being in thermodynamic equilibrium at earlier times. Thus the matter at z = zdec forms the Last Scattering Surface (LSS) in the early universe, emitting Cosmic Blackbody Background Radiation (‘CBR’) at 4000K, that since then has travelled freely with its temperature T scaling inversely with the scale function of the universe. As the radiation travelled towards us, the universe expanded by a factor of about 1100; consequently by the time it reaches us, it has cooled to 2.75 K (that is, about 3 degrees above absolute zero, with a spectrum peaking in the microwave region), and so is extremely hard to observe. It was however detected in 1965, and its spectrum has since been intensively investigated, its blackbody nature being confirmed to high accuracy (R. B. Partridge-3K_ The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation). Its existence is now taken as solid proof both that the Universe has indeed expanded from a hot early phase, and that standard physics applied unchanged at that era in the early universe.

The thermal capacity of the radiation is hugely greater than that of the matter. At very early times before decoupling, the temperatures of the matter and radiation were the same (because they were in equilibrium with each other), scaling as 1/S(t) (Equation 1 above). The early universe exceeded any temperature that can ever be attained on Earth or even in the centre of the Sun; as it dropped towards its present value of 3 K, successive physical reactions took place that determined the nature of the matter we see around us today. At very early times and high temperatures, only elementary particles can survive and even neutrinos had a very small mean free path; as the universe cooled down, neutrinos decoupled from the matter and streamed freely through space. At these times the expansion of the universe was radiation dominated, and we can approximate the universe then by models with {k = 0, w = 1/3, Λ = 0}, the resulting simple solution of

3S ̇2/S2 = A/S3 + B/S4 + Λ/3 – 3k/S2 —– (3)

uniquely relating time to temperature:

S(t)=S0t1/2 , t=1.92sec [T/1010K]−2 —– (4)

(There are no free constants in the latter equation).

At very early times, even neutrinos were tightly coupled and in equilibrium with the radiation; they decoupled at about 1010K, resulting in a relic neutrino background density in the universe today of about Ων0 ≃ 10−5 if they are massless (but it could be higher depending on their masses). Key events in the early universe are associated with out of equilibrium phenomena. An important event was the era of nucleosynthesis, the time when the light elements were formed. Above about 109K, nuclei could not exist because the radiation was so energetic that as fast as they formed, they were disrupted into their constituent parts (protons and neutrons). However below this temperature, if particles collided with each other with sufficient energy for nuclear reactions to take place, the resultant nuclei remained intact (the radiation being less energetic than their binding energy and hence unable to disrupt them). Thus the nuclei of the light elements  – deuterium, tritium, helium, and lithium – were created by neutron capture. This process ceased when the temperature dropped below about 108K (the nuclear reaction threshold). In this way, the proportions of these light elements at the end of nucleosynthesis were determined; they have remained virtually unchanged since. The rate of reaction was extremely high; all this took place within the first three minutes of the expansion of the Universe. One of the major triumphs of Big Bang theory is that theory and observation are in excellent agreement provided the density of baryons is low: Ωbar0 ≃ 0.044. Then the predicted abundances of these elements (25% Helium by weight, 75% Hydrogen, the others being less than 1%) agrees very closely with the observed abundances. Thus the standard model explains the origin of the light elements in terms of known nuclear reactions taking place in the early Universe. However heavier elements cannot form in the time available (about 3 minutes).

In a similar way, physical processes in the very early Universe (before nucleosynthesis) can be invoked to explain the ratio of matter to anti-matter in the present-day Universe: a small excess of matter over anti-matter must be created then in the process of baryosynthesis, without which we could not exist today (if there were no such excess, matter and antimatter would have all annihilated to give just radiation). However other quantities (such as electric charge) are believed to have been conserved even in the extreme conditions of the early Universe, so their present values result from given initial conditions at the origin of the Universe, rather than from physical processes taking place as it evolved. In the case of electric charge, the total conserved quantity appears to be zero: after quarks form protons and neutrons at the time of baryosynthesis, there are equal numbers of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons, so that at the time of decoupling there were just enough electrons to combine with the nuclei and form uncharged atoms (it seems there is no net electrical charge on astronomical bodies such as our galaxy; were this not true, electromagnetic forces would dominate cosmology, rather than gravity).

After decoupling, matter formed large scale structures through gravitational instability which eventually led to the formation of the first generation of stars and is probably associated with the re-ionization of matter. However at that time planets could not form for a very important reason: there were no heavy elements present in the Universe. The first stars aggregated matter together by gravitational attraction, the matter heating up as it became more and more concentrated, until its temperature exceeded the thermonuclear ignition point and nuclear reactions started burning hydrogen to form helium. Eventually more complex nuclear reactions started in concentric spheres around the centre, leading to a build-up of heavy elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen for example), up to iron. These elements can form in stars because there is a long time available (millions of years) for the reactions to take place. Massive stars burn relatively rapidly, and eventually run out of nuclear fuel. The star becomes unstable, and its core rapidly collapses because of gravitational attraction. The consequent rise in temperature blows it apart in a giant explosion, during which time new reactions take place that generate elements heavier than iron; this explosion is seen by us as a Supernova (“New Star”) suddenly blazing in the sky, where previously there was just an ordinary star. Such explosions blow into space the heavy elements that had been accumulating in the star’s interior, forming vast filaments of dust around the remnant of the star. It is this material that can later be accumulated, during the formation of second generation stars, to form planetary systems around those stars. Thus the elements of which we are made (the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and iron nuclei for example) were created in the extreme heat of stellar interiors, and made available for our use by supernova explosions. Without these explosions, we could not exist.

Dance of the Shiva, q’i (chee) and Tibetan Sunyata. Manifestation of Mysticism.

अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो नैनद्देवाप्नुवन्पूर्वमर्षत् ।
तद्धावतोऽन्यान्नत्येति तिष्ठत् तस्मिन्नापो मातरिश्वा दधाति ॥

anejadekaṃ manaso javīyo nainaddevāpnuvanpūrvamarṣat |
taddhāvato’nyānnatyeti tiṣṭhat tasminnāpo mātariśvā dadhāti ||

The self is one. It is unmoving: yet faster than the mind. Thus moving faster, It is beyond the reach of the senses. Ever steady, It outstrips all that run. By its mere presence, the cosmic energy is enabled to sustain the activities of living beings.

तस्मिन् मनसि ब्रह्मलोकादीन्द्रुतं गच्छति सति प्रथमप्राप्त इवात्मचैतन्याभासो गृह्यते अतः मनसो जवीयः इत्याह ।

tasmin manasi brahmalokādīndrutaṃ gacchati sati prathamaprāpta ivātmacaitanyābhāso gṛhyate ataḥ manaso javīyaḥ ityāha |

When the mind moves fast towards the farthest worlds such as the brahmaloka, it finds the Atman, of the nature of pure awareness, already there; hence the statement that It is faster than the mind.

नित्योऽनित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानाम्
एको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान् ।
तमात्मस्थं योऽनुपश्यन्ति धीराः
तेषां शान्तिः शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् ॥

nityo’nityānāṃ cetanaścetanānām
eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān |
tamātmasthaṃ yo’nupaśyanti dhīrāḥ
teṣāṃ śāntiḥ śāśvataṃ netareṣām ||

He is the eternal in the midst of non-eternals, the principle of intelligence in all that are intelligent. He is One, yet fulfils the desires of many. Those wise men who perceive Him as existing within their own self, to them eternal peace, and non else.


Eastern mysticism approaches the manifestation of life in the cosmos and all that compose it from a position diametrically opposed to the view that prevailed until recently among the majority of Western scientists, philosophers, and religionists. Orientals see the universe as a whole, as an organism. For them all things are interconnected, links in a chain of beings permeated by consciousness which threads them together. This consciousness is the one life-force, originator of all the phenomena we know under the heading of nature, and it dwells within its emanations, urging them as a powerful inner drive to grow and evolve into ever more refined expressions of divinity. The One manifests, not only in all its emanations, but also through those emanations as channels: it is within them and yet remains transcendent as well.

The emphasis is on the Real as subject whereas in the West it is seen as object. If consciousness is the noumenal or subjective aspect of life in contrast to the phenomenal or objective — everything seen as separate objects — then only this consciousness can be experienced, and no amount of analysis can reveal the soul of Reality. To illustrate: for the ancient Egyptians, their numerous “gods” were aspects of the primal energy of the Divine Mind (Thoth) which, before the creation of our universe, rested, a potential in a subjective state within the “waters of Space.” It was through these gods that the qualities of divinity manifested.

A question still being debated runs: “How does the One become the many?” meaning: if there is a “God,” how do the universe and the many entities composing it come into being? This question does not arise among those who perceive the One to dwell in the many, and the many to live in the One from whom life and sustenance derive. Despite our Western separation of Creator and creation, and the corresponding distancing of “God” from human beings, Western mystics have held similar views to those of the East, e.g.: Meister Eckhart, the Dominican theologian and preacher, who was accused of blasphemy for daring to say that he had once experienced nearness to the “Godhead.” His friends and followers were living testimony to the charisma (using the word in its original connotation of spiritual magnetism) of those who live the life of love for fellow beings men like Johannes Tauler, Heinrich Suso, the “admirable Ruysbroeck,” who expressed views similar to those of Eastern exponents of the spiritual way or path.

In old China, the universe was described as appearing first as q’i (chee), an emanation of Light, not the physical light that we know, but its divine essence sometimes called Tien, Heaven, in contrast to Earth. The q’i energy polarized as Yang and Yin, positive and negative electromagnetism. From the action and interaction of these two sprang the “10,000 things”: the universe, our world, the myriads of beings and things as we perceive them to be. In other words, the ancient Chinese viewed our universe as one of process, the One energy, q’i, proliferating into the many.

In their paintings Chinese artists depict man as a small but necessary element in gigantic natural scenes. And since we are parts of the cosmos, we are embodiments of all its potentials and our relationship depends upon how we focus ourselves: (1) harmoniously, i.e., in accord with nature; or (2) disharmoniously, interfering with the course of nature. We therefore affect the rest: our environment, all other lives, and bear full responsibility for the outcome of our thoughts and acts, our motivations, our impacts. Their art students were taught to identify with what they were painting, because there is life in every thing, and it is this life with which they must identify, with boulders and rocks no less than with birds flying overhead. Matter, energy, space, are all manifestations of q’i and we, as parts thereof, are intimately connected with all the universe.

In India, the oneness of life was seen through the prism of successive manifestations of Brahman, a neuter or impersonal term in Sanskrit for divinity, the equivalent of what Eckhart called the Godhead. Brahman is the source of the creative power, Brahma, Eckhart’s Creator; and also the origin of the sustaining and supporting energy or Vishnu, and of the destructive/regenerative force or Siva. As these three operate through the cosmos, the “world” as we know it, so do they also through ourselves on a smaller scale according to our capacity. Matter is perceived to be condensed energy, Chit or consciousness itself. To quote from the Mundaka Upanishad:

By the energism of Consciousness Brahman is massed; from that: Matter is born and from Matter Life and Mind and the worlds . . .

In another Hindu scripture, it is stated that when Brahma awakened from his period of rest between manifestations, he desired to contemplate himself as he is. By gazing into the awakening matter particles as into a mirror, he stirred them to exhibit their latent divine qualities. Since this process involves a continuous unfoldment from the center within, an ever-becoming, there can never be an end to the creativity — universal “days” comprising trillions of our human years, followed by a like number of resting “nights.”

We feel within ourselves the same driving urge to grow that runs through the entire, widespread universe, to express more and more of what is locked up in the formless or subjective realm of Be-ness, awaiting the magic moment to come awake in our phase of life.

Tibetan metaphysics embraces all of this in discussing Sunyata, which can be viewed as Emptiness if we use only our outer senses, or as Fullness if we inwardly perceive it to be full of energies of limitless ranges of wave-lengths/frequencies. This latter aspect of Space is the great mother of all, ever fecund, from whose “heart” emerge endless varieties of beings, endless forces, ever-changing variations — like the pulsing energies the new physicists perceive nuclear subparticles to be.

In the Preface to his Tao of physics Fritjof Capra tells how one summer afternoon he had a transforming experience by the seashore as he watched the waves rolling in and felt the rhythm of his own breathing. He saw dancing motes revealed in a beam of sunlight; particles of energy vibrating as molecules and atoms; cascades of energy pouring down upon us from outer space. All of this coming and going, appearing and disappearing, he equated with the Indian concept of the dance of Siva . . . he felt its rhythm, “heard” its sound, and knew himself to be a part of it. Through this highly personal, indeed mystical, experience Capra became aware of his “whole environment as being engaged in a gigantic cosmic dance.”

This is the gist of the old Chinese approach to physics: students were taught gravitation by observing the petals of a flower as they fall gracefully to the ground. As Gary Zukav expresses it in his Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics:

The world of particle physics is a world of sparkling energy forever dancing with itself in the form of its particles as they twinkle in and out of existence, collide, transmute, and disappear again.

That is: the dance of Siva is the dance of attraction and repulsion between charged particles of the electromagnetic force. This is a kind of “transcendental” physics, going beyond the “world of opposites” and approaching a mystical view of the larger Reality that is to our perceptions an invisible foundation of what we call “physical reality.” It is so far beyond the capacity or vocabulary of the mechanically rational part of our mind to define, that the profound Hindu scripture Isa Upanishad prefers to suggest the thought by a paradox:

तदेजति तन्नैजति तद्दूरे तद्वन्तिके ।
तदन्तरस्य सर्वस्य तदु सर्वस्यास्य बाह्यतः ॥

tadejati tannaijati taddūre tadvantike |
tadantarasya sarvasya tadu sarvasyāsya bāhyataḥ ||

It moves. It moves not.  It is far, and it is near. It is within all this, And It is verily outside of all this.

Indeed, there is a growing recognition mostly by younger physicists that consciousness is more than another word for awareness, more than a by-product of cellular activity (or of atomic or subatomic vibrations). For instance, Jack Sarfatti, a quantum physicist, says that signals pulsating through space provide instant communication between all parts of the cosmos. “These signals can be likened to pulses of nerve cells of a great cosmic brain that permeates all parts of space (Michael Talbot, Mysticism and the New Physics).” Michael Talbot quotes Sir James Jeans’ remark, “the universe is more like a giant thought than a giant machine,” commenting that the “substance of the great thought is consciousness” which pervades all space. Or as Schrödinger would have it:

Consciouness is never experienced in the plural, only in the singular….Consciouness is a singular of which the plural is unknown; that; there is only one thing and that, what seems to be a plurality is merely a series of different aspects of this one thing, produced by a deception (the Indian Maya).

Other phenomena reported as occurring in the cosmos at great distances from each other, yet simultaneously, appear to be connected in some way so far unexplained, but to which the term consciousness has been applied.

In short, the mystic deals with direct experience; the intuitive scientist is open-minded, and indeed the great discoveries such as Einstein’s were made by amateurs in their field untrammeled by prior definitions and the limitations inherited from past speculations. This freedom enabled them to strike out on new paths that they cleared and paved. The rationalist tries to grapple with the problems of a living universe using only analysis and whatever the computer functions of the mind can put together.

The theosophic perspective upon universal phenomena is based on the concept of the ensoulment of the cosmos. That is: from the smallest subparticle we know anything about to the largest star-system that has been observed, each and all possess at their core vitality, energy, an active something propelling towards growth, evolution of faculties from within.

The only “permanent” in the whole universe is motion: unceasing movement, and the ideal perception is a blend of the mystical with the scientific, the intuitive with the rational.