Suspicion on Consciousness as an Immanent Derivative

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The category of the subject (like that of the object) has no place in an immanent world. There can be no transcendent, subjective essence. What, then, is the ontological status of a body and its attendant instance of consciousness? In what would it exist? Sanford Kwinter (conjuncted here) here offers:

It would exist precisely in the ever-shifting pattern of mixtures or composites: both internal ones – the body as a site marked and traversed by forces that converge upon it in continuous variation; and external ones – the capacity of any individuated substance to combine and recombine with other bodies or elements (ensembles), both influencing their actions and undergoing influence by them. The ‘subject’ … is but a synthetic unit falling at the midpoint or interface of two more fundamental systems of articulation: the first composed of the fluctuating microscopic relations and mixtures of which the subject is made up, the second of the macro-blocs of relations or ensembles into which it enters. The image produced at the interface of these two systems – that which replaces, yet is too often mistaken for, subjective essence – may in turn have its own individuality characterized with a certain rigor. For each mixture at this level introduces into the bloc a certain number of defining capacities that determine both what the ‘subject’ is capable of bringing to pass outside of itself and what it is capable of receiving (undergoing) in terms of effects.

This description is sufficient to explain the immanent nature of the subjective bloc as something entirely embedded in and conditioned by its surroundings. What it does not offer – and what is not offered in any detail in the entirety of the work – is an in-depth account of what, exactly, these “defining capacities” are. To be sure, it would be unfair to demand a complete description of these capacities. Kwinter himself has elsewhere referred to the states of the nervous system as “magically complex”. Regardless of the specificity with which these capacities can presently be defined, we must nonetheless agree that it is at this interface, as he calls it, at this location where so many systems are densely overlaid, that consciousness is produced. We may be convinced that this consciousness, this apparent internal space of thought, is derived entirely from immanent conditions and can only be granted the ontological status of an effect, but this effect still manages to produce certain difficulties when attempting to define modes of behavior appropriate to an immanent world.

There is a palpable suspicion of the role of consciousness throughout Kwinter’s work, at least insofar as it is equated with some kind of internal, subjective space. (In one text he optimistically awaits the day when this space will “be left utterly in shreds.”) The basis of this suspicion is multiple and obvious. Among the capacities of consciousness is the ability to attribute to itself the (false) image of a stable and transcendent essence. The workings of consciousness are precisely what allow the subjective bloc to orient itself in a sequence of time, separating itself from an absolute experience of the moment. It is within consciousness that limiting and arbitrary moral categories seem to most stubbornly lodge themselves. (To be sure this is the location of all critical thought.) And, above all, consciousness may serve as the repository for conditioned behaviors which believe themselves to be free of external determination. Consciousness, in short, contains within itself an enormous number of limiting factors which would retard the production of novelty. Insofar as it appears to possess the capacity for self-determination, this capacity would seem most productively applied by turning on itself – that is, precisely by making the choice not to make conscious decisions and instead to permit oneself to be seized by extra-subjective forces.

Quantum Energy Teleportation. Drunken Risibility.

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Time is one of the most difficult concepts in physics. It enters in the equations in a rather artificial way – as an external parameter. Although strictly speaking time is a quantity that we measure, it is not possible in quantum physics to define a time-observable in the same way as for the other quantities that we measure (position, momentum, etc.). The intuition that we have about time is that of a uniform flow, as suggested by the regular ticks of clocks. Time flows undisturbed by the variety of events that may occur in an irregular pattern in the world. Similarly, the quantum vacuum is the most regular state one can think of. For example, a persistent superconducting current flows at a constant speed – essentially forever. Can then one use the quantum vacuum as a clock? This is a fascinating dispute in condensed-matter physics, formulated as the problem of existence of time crystals. A time crystal, by analogy with a crystal in space, is a system that displays a time-regularity under measurement, while being in the ground (vacuum) state.

Then, if there is an energy (the zero-point energy) associated with empty space, it follows via the special theory of relativity that this energy should correspond to an inertial mass. By the principle of equivalence of the general theory of relativity, inertial mass is identical with the gravitational mass. Thus, empty space must gravitate. So, how much does empty space weigh? This question brings us to the frontiers of our knowledge of vacuum – the famous problem of the cosmological constant, a problem that Einstein was wrestling with, and which is still an open issue in modern cosmology.

Finally, although we cannot locally extract the zero-point energy of the vacuum fluctuations, the vacuum state of a field can be used to transfer energy from one place to another by using only information. This protocol has been called quantum energy teleportation and uses the fact that different spatial regions of a quantum field in the ground state are entangled. It then becomes possible to extract locally energy from the vacuum by making a measurement in one place, then communicating the result to an experimentalist in a spatially remote region, who would be able then to extract energy by making an appropriate (depending on the result communicated) measurement on her or his local vacuum. This suggests that the vacuum is the primordial essence, the ousia from which everything came into existence.

Whitehead’s Anti-Substantivilism, or Process & Reality as a Cosmology to-be. Thought of the Day 39.0

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Treating “stuff” as some kind of metaphysical primitive is mere substantivilism – and fundamentally question-begging. One has replaced an extra-theoretic referent of the wave-function (unless one defers to some quasi-literalist reading of the nature of the stochastic amplitude function ζ[X(t)] as somehow characterizing something akin to being a “density of stuff”, and moreover the logic and probability (Born Rules) must ultimately be obtained from experimentally obtained scattering amplitudes) with something at least as equally mystifying, as the argument against decoherence goes on to show:

In other words, you have a state vector which gives rise to an outcome of a measurement and you cannot understand why this is so according to your theory.

As a response to Platonism, one can likewise read Process and Reality as essentially anti-substantivilist.

Consider, for instance:

Those elements of our experience which stand out clearly and distinctly [giving rise to our substantial intuitions] in our consciousness are not its basic facts, [but] they are . . . late derivatives in the concrescence of an experiencing subject. . . .Neglect of this law [implies that] . . . [e]xperience has been explained in a thoroughly topsy-turvy fashion, the wrong end first (161).

To function as an object is to be a determinant of the definiteness of an actual occurrence [occasion] (243).

The phenomenological ontology offered in Process and Reality is richly nuanced (including metaphysical primitives such as prehensions, occasions, and their respectively derivative notions such as causal efficacy, presentational immediacy, nexus, etc.). None of these suggest metaphysical notions of substance (i.e., independently existing subjects) as a primitive. The case can perhaps be made concerning the discussion of eternal objects, but such notions as discussed vis-à-vis the process of concrescence are obviously not metaphysically primitive notions. Certainly these metaphysical primitives conform in a more nuanced and articulated manner to aspects of process ontology. “Embedding” – as the notion of emergence is a crucial constituent in the information-theoretic, quantum-topological, and geometric accounts. Moreover, concerning the issue of relativistic covariance, it is to be regarded that Process and Reality is really a sketch of a cosmology-to-be . . . [in the spirit of ] Kant [who] built on the obsolete ideas of space, time, and matter of Euclid and Newton. Whitehead set out to suggest what a philosophical cosmology might be that builds on Newton.

Exophysics versus Endophysics. Thought of the Day 36.0

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In exophysics, reality simply obeys naive existentialism, that is, the existence of molecules and mechanics forms the reality of the surrounding world. In endophysics, reality is attributable to an interface between an observer and the rest of the world. This unique reality is comparable with the Kantian ‘fake reality’, and/or psychoanalysis, but was able to be characterized in more scientific manner by Otto Rössler: namely, as an objective reality of a subjective type, by, for example, introducing a new concept of second causality as assignment conditions that are the third ingredient that makes it possible for any motion to appear endophysically in addition to the initial conditions and laws in the Newtonian dynamics. Countable macroobjects may not be countable in a microscopic level. Thus indistinguishability becomes essential in endophysics, and this seemingly becomes possible that an origin of individuality can be derived using this line, because how to prescribe the situation of being distinguishable is an essence of endophysics.

Excessive Subjective Transversalities. Thought of the Day 33.0

In other words, object and subject, in their mutual difference and reciprocal trajectories, emerge and re-emerge together, from transformation. The everything that has already happened is emergence, registered after its fact in a subject-object relation. Where there was classically and in modernity an external opposition between object and subject, there is now a double distinction internal to the transformation. 1) After-the-fact: subject-object is to emergence as stoppage is to process. 2) In-fact: “objective” and “subjective” are inseparable, as matter of transformation to manner of transformation… (Brian Massumi Deleuze Guattari and Philosophy of Expression)

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Massumi makes the case, after Simondon and Deleuze and Guattari, for a dynamic process of subjectivity in which subject and object are other but their relation is transformative to their terms. That relation is emergence. In Felix Guattari’s last book, Chaosmosis, he outlines the production of subjectivity as transversal. He states that subjectivity is

the ensemble of conditions which render possible the emergence of individual and/or collective instances as self-referential existential Territories, adjacent, or in a delimiting relation, to an alterity that is itself subjective.

This is the subject in excess (Simondon; Deleuze), overpowering the transcendental. The subject as constituted by all the forces that simultaneously impinge upon it; are in relation to it. Similarly, Simondon characterises this subjectivity as the transindividual, which refers to

a relation to others, which is not determined by a constituted subject position, but by pre-individuated potentials only experienced as affect (Adrian Mackenzie-Transductions_ bodies and machines at speed).

Equating this proposition to technologically enabled relations exerts a strong attraction on the experience of felt presence and interaction in distributed networks. Simondon’s principle of individuation, an ontogenetic process similar to Deleuze’s morphogenetic process, is committed to the guiding principle

of the conservation of being through becoming. This conservation is effected by means of the exchanges made between structure and process… (Simondon).

Or think of this as structure and organisation, which is autopoietic process; the virtual organisation of the affective interval. These leanings best situate ideas circulating through collectives and their multiple individuations. These approaches reflect one of Bergson’s lasting contributions to philosophical practice: his anti-dialectical methodology that debunks duality and the synthesised composite for a differentiated multiplicity that is also a unified (yet heterogeneous) continuity of duration. Multiplicities replace the transcendental concept of essences.

Of Phenomenology, Noumenology and Appearances. Note Quote.

Heidegger’s project in Being and Time does not itself escape completely the problematic of transcendental reflection. The idea of fundamental ontology and its foundation in Dasein, which is concerned “with being” and the analysis of Dasein, at first seemed simply to mark a new dimension within transcendental phenomenology. But under the title of a hermeneutics of facticity, Heidegger objected to Husserl’s eidetic phenomenology that a hermeneutic phenomenology must contain also the theory of facticity, which is not in itself an eidos, Husserl’s phenomenology which consistently holds to the central idea of proto-I cannot be accepted without reservation in interpretation theory in particular that this eidos belong only to the eidetic sphere of universal essences. Phenomenology should be based ontologically on the facticity of the Dasein, and this existence cannot be derived from anything else.

Nevertheless, Heidegger’s complete reversal of reflection and its redirection of it toward “Being”, i.e, the turn or kehre, still is not so much an alteration of his point of view as the indirect result of his critique of Husserl’s concept of transcendental reflection, which had not yet become fully effective in Being and Time. Gadamer, however, would incorporate Husserl’s ideal of an eidetic ontology somewhat “alongside” transcendental constitutional research. Here, the philosophical justification lies ultimately in the completion of the transcendental reduction, which can come only at a higher level of direct access of the individual to the object. Thus there is a question of how our awareness of essences remains subordinated to transcendental phenomenology, but this does not rule out the possibility of turning transcendental phenomenology into an essence-oriented mundane science.

Heidegger does not follow Husserl from eidetic to transcendental phenomenology, but stays with the interpretation of phenomena in relation to their essences. As ‘hermeneutic’, his phenomenology still proceeds from a given Dasein in order to determine the meaning of existence, but now it takes the form of a fundamental ontology. By his careful discussion of the etymology of the words “phenomenon” and “Logos” he shows that “phenomenology” must be taken as letting that which shows itself be seen from itself, and in the very way in it which shows itself from itself. The more genuinely a methodological concept is worked out and the more comprehensively it determines the principles on which a science is to be conducted, the more deeply and primordially it is rooted in terms of the things themselves; whereas if understanding is restricted to the things themselves only so far as they correspond to those judgments considered “first in themselves”, then the things themselves cannot be addressed beyond particular judgements regarding events.

The doctrine of the thing-in-itself entails the possibility of a continuous transition from one aspect of a thing to another, which alone makes possible a unified matrix of experience. Husserl’s idea of the thing-in-itself, as Gadamer introduces it, must be understood in terms of the hermeneutic progress of our knowledge. In other words, in the hermeneutical context the maxim to the thing itself signifies to the text itself. Phenomenology here means grasping the text in such a way that every interpretation about the text must be considered first as directly exhibiting the text and then as demonstrating it with regard to other texts.

Heidegger called this “descriptive phenomenology” which is fundamentally tautological. He explains that phenomenon in Greek first signifies that which looks like something, or secondly that which is semblant or a semblance (das scheinbare, der Schein). He sees both these expressions as structurally interconnected, and having nothing to do with what is called an “appearance” or mere “appearance”. Based on the ordinary conception of phenomenon, the definition of “appearance” as referring to can be regarded also as characterizing the phenomenological concern for the text in itself and for itself. Only through referring to the text in itself can we have a real phenomenology based on appearance. This theory, however, requires a broad meaning of appearance including what does the referring as well as the noumenon.

Heidegger explains that what does the referring must show itself in itself. Further, the appearance “of something” does not mean showing-itself, but that the thing itself announces itself through something which does show itself. Thus, Heidegger urges that what appears does not show itself and anything which fails to show itself can never seem. On the other hand, while appearing is never a showing-itself in the sense of phenomenon, it is preconditioned by something showing-itself (through which the thing announces itself). This showing itself is not appearing itself, but makes the appearing possible. Appearing then is an announcing-itself (das sich-melden) through something that shows itself.

Also, a phenomenon cannot be represented by the word “appearance” if it alludes to that wherein something appears without itself being an appearance. That wherein something appears means that wherein something announces itself without showing itself, in other words without being itself an “appearance” (appearance signifying the showing itself which belongs essentially to that “wherein” something announces itself). Based upon this argument, phenomena are never appearances. This, however, does not deny the fact that every appearance is dependent on phenomena.

Harmonies of the Orphic Mystery: Emanation of Music

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As the Buddhist sage Nagarjuna states in his Seventy Verses on Sunyata, “Being does not arise, since it exists . . .” In similar fashion it can be said that mind exists, and if we human beings manifest its qualities, then the essence and characteristics of mind must be a component of our cosmic source. David Bohm’s theory of the “implicate order” within the operations of nature suggests that observed phenomena do not operate only when they become objective to our senses. Rather, they emerge out of a subjective state or condition that contains the potentials in a latent yet really existent state that is just awaiting the necessary conditions to manifest. Thus within the explicate order of things and beings in our familiar world there is the implicate order out of which all of these emerge in their own time.

Clearly, sun and its family of planets function in accordance with natural laws. The precision of the orbital and other electromagnetic processes is awesome, drawing into one operation the functions of the smallest subparticles and the largest families of sun-stars in their galaxies, and beyond even them. These individual entities are bonded together in an evident unity that we may compare with the oceans of our planet: uncountable numbers of water molecules appear to us as a single mass of substance. In seeking the ultimate particle, the building block of the cosmos, some researchers have found themselves confronted with the mystery of what it is that holds units together in an organism — any organism!

As in music where a harmony consists of many tones bearing an inherent relationship, so must there be harmony embracing all the children of cosmos. Longing for the Harmonies: Themes and Variations from Modern Physics is a book by Frank Wilczek, an eminent physicist, and his wife Betsy Devine, an engineering scientist and freelance writer. The theme of their book is set out in their first paragraph:

From Pythagoras measuring harmonies on a lyre string to R. P. Feynman beating out salsa on his bongos, many a scientist has fallen in love with music. This love is not always rewarded with perfect mastery. Albert Einstein, an ardent amateur of the violin, provoked a more competent player to bellow at him, “Einstein, can’t you count?”

Both music and scientific research, Einstein wrote, “are nourished by the same source of longing, and they complement one another in the release they offer.” It seems to us, too, that the mysterious longing behind a scientist’s search for meaning is the same that inspires creativity in music, art, or any other enterprise of the restless human spirit. And the release they offer is to inhabit, if only for a moment, some point of union between the lonely world of subjectivity and the shared universe of external reality.

In a very lucid text, Wilczek and Devine show us that the laws of nature, and the structure of the universe and all its contributing parts, can be presented in such a way that the whole compares with a musical composition comprising themes that are fused together. One of the early chapters begins with the famous lines of the great astronomer Johannes Kepler, who in 1619 referred to the music of the spheres:

The heavenly motions are nothing but a continuous song for several voices (perceived by the intellect, not by the ear); a music which, through discordant tensions, through sincopes [sic] and cadenzas, as it were (as men employ them in imitation of those natural discords) progresses towards certain pre-designed quasi six-voiced clausuras, and thereby sets landmarks in the immeasurable flow of time. — The Harmony of the World (Harmonice mundi)

Discarding the then current superstitions and misinformed speculation, through the cloud of which Kepler had to work for his insights, Wilczek and Devine note that Kepler’s obsession with the idea of the harmony of the world is actually rooted in Pythagoras’s theory that the universe is built upon number, a concept of the Orphic mystery-religions of Greece. The idea is that “the workings of the world are governed by relations of harmony and, in particular, that music is associated with the motion of the planets — the music of the spheres” (Wilczek and Devine). Arthur Koestler, in writing of Kepler and his work, claimed that the astronomer attempted

to bare the ultimate secret of the universe in an all-embracing synthesis of geometry, music, astrology, astronomy and epistemology. The Sleepwalkers

In Longing for the Harmonies the authors refer to the “music of the spheres” as a notion that in time past was “vague, mystical, and elastic.” As the foundations of music are rhythm and harmony, they remind us that Kepler saw the planets moving around the sun “to a single cosmic rhythm.” There is some evidence that he had association with a “neo-Pythagorean” movement and that, owing to the religious-fomented opposition to unorthodox beliefs, he kept his ideas hidden under allegory and metaphor.

Shakespeare, too, phrases the thought of tonal vibrations emitted by the planets and stars as the “music of the spheres,” the notes likened to those of the “heavenly choir” of cherubim. This calls to mind that Plato’s Cratylus terms the planets theoi, from theein meaning “to run, to move.” Motion does suggest animation, or beings imbued with life, and indeed the planets are living entities so much grander than human beings that the Greeks and other peoples called them “gods.” Not the physical bodies were meant, but the essence within them, in the same way that a human being is known by the inner qualities expressed through the personality.

When classical writers spoke of planets and starry entities as “animals” they did not refer to animals such as we know on Earth, but to the fact that the celestial bodies are “animated,” embodying energies received from the sun and cosmos and transmitted with their own inherent qualities added.

Many avenues open up for our reflection upon the nature of the cosmos and ourselves, and our interrelationship, as we consider the structure of natural laws as Wilczek and Devine present them. For example, the study of particles, their interactions, their harmonizing with those laws, is illuminating intrinsically and, additionally, because of their universal application. The processes involved occur here on earth, and evidently also within the solar system and beyond, explaining certain phenomena that had been awaiting clarification.

The study of atoms here on earth and their many particles and subparticles has enabled researchers to deduce how stars are born, how and why they shine, and how they die. Now some researchers are looking at what it is, whether a process or an energy, that unites the immeasurably small with the very large cosmic bodies we now know. If nature is infinite, it must be so in a qualitative sense, not merely a quantitative.

One of the questions occupying the minds of cosmologists is whether the universal energy is running down like the mechanism of an unwinding Swiss watch, or whether there is enough mass to slow the outward thrust caused by the big bang that has been assumed to have started our cosmos going. In other words, is our universe experiencing entropy — dying as its energy is being used up — or will there be a “brake” put upon the expansion that could, conceivably, result in a return to the source of the initial explosion billions of years ago? Cosmologists have been looking for enough “dark mass” to serve as such a brake.

Among the topics treated by Wilczek and Devine in threading their way through many themes and variations in modern physics, is what is known as the mass-generating Higgs field. This is a proposition formulated by Peter Higgs, a Scottish physicist, who suggests there is an electromagnetic field that pervades the cosmos and universally provides the electron particles with mass.

The background Higgs field must have very accurately the same value throughout the universe. After all, we know — from the fact that the light from distant galaxies contains the same spectral lines we find on Earth — that electrons have the same mass throughout the universe. So if electrons are getting their mass from the Higgs field, this field had better have the same strength everywhere. What is the meaning of this all-pervasive field, which exists with no apparent source? Why is it there? (Wilczek and Devine).

What is the meaning? Why is it there? These are among the most important questions that can be asked. Though physicists may provide profound mathematical equations, they will thereby offer only more precise detail as to what is happening. We shall not receive an answer to the “What” and the “Why” without recourse to meta-physics, beyond the realm of brain-devised definitions.

The human mind is limited in its present stage of evolution. It may see the logical necessity of infinity referent to space and time; for if not infinity, what then is on the other side of the “fence” that is our outermost limit? But, being able to perceive the logical necessity of infinity, the finite mind still cannot span the limitless ranges of space, time, and substance.

If we human beings are manifold in our composition, and since we draw our very existence and sustenance from the universe at large, our conjoint nature must be drawn from the sources of life, substance, and energy, in which our and all other cosmic lives are immersed.

As the authors conclude their fascinating work:

“The worlds opened to our view are graced with wonderful symmetry and uniformity. Learning to know them, to appreciate their many harmonies, is like deepening an acquaintance with some great and meaningful piece of music — surely one of the best things life has to offer.”

The Occultic

The whole essence of truth cannot be transmitted from mouth to ear. Nor can any pen describe it, not even that of the recording Angel, unless man finds the answer in the sanctuary of his own heart, in the innermost depths of his divine intuitions. — The Secret Doctrine

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How are those “innermost depths” to be sounded, so that knowledge of reality may be won? Through training, discipline, and self-born wisdom. Such training and soul-discipline is the distinguishing mark of the Mystery colleges, which since their inauguration have been divided into two parts: the exoteric form commonly known as the Lesser Mysteries, open to all sincere and honorable candidates for deeper learning; and the esoteric form, or the Greater Mysteries, whose doors open but to the few and whose initiation into adeptship is the reward of those whose interior nobility enables them to undergo the solar rite.

Universal testimony of stone and papyrus, symbol and allegory, cave and crypt, tells of the twofold trial of neophytes. Jesus the Avatara spoke to the multitudes in parable, but “when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples” (Mark 4:34). The Essenes had their greater and minor Mysteries, in the former of which Jesus of Nazareth is believed to have been initiated.

The Chinese Buddhists hold to a well-loved tradition that Buddha Gautama had two doctrines: one for the people and his lay-disciples; the other for his arhats. His invariable principle was to refuse no one admission into the ranks of candidates for Arhatship, but never to divulge the final mysteries except to those who had proved themselves, during long years of probation, to be worthy of Initiation.

Intensity of purpose marks the Hebrew initiates in their shrouding of inner teaching. To the multitude they taught the Torah, the “Law,” but to the few they taught its unwritten interpretation, the “Secret Wisdom” — hokhmah nistorah — “in ‘darkness, in a deserted place, and after many and terrific trials.’ . . . Delivered only as a mystery, it was communicated to the candidate orally, `face to face and mouth to ear.’ ” The Persian and Chaldean Magi also were of two castes: “the initiated and those who were allowed to officiate in the popular rites only” (Isis Unveiled).

Eleusis and Samothrace are limned in exquisite silhouette against the blue-black sky of history. Classical scholars tell us that the Lesser Mysteries were conducted in the springtime at Agrai near Athens, while the Greater Mysteries were celebrated in the autumn at Eleusis. In the Lesser Mysteries the candidates who experienced the first rites were called mystai (the closed of eye and mouth). In the Greater Mysteries the mystai became epoptai (the clear-seeing), who participated in the mysteries of the Divine Elysion — i.e., communion with the divine.

Similarly, the Hindu arhat, the Scandinavian skald, and the Welsh bard guarded the soul of esotericism with the sanctity of their lives and the discipline of their sacred tradition:

Belonging to every temple there were attached the “hierophants” of the inner sanctuary, and the secular clergy who were not even instructed in the Mysteries. — Isis Unveiled.

Further, in all ancient countries “every great temple had its private or secret Mystery-School which was unknown to the multitude or partially known,” and which was attached to it as a secret body. A Mystery school is not necessarily a school of people situated at some specific place, with definite and fixed locality throughout time, and with physical conditions of environment always alike. Wherever the need is great, work must be done; and the “mistake of all scholars and mystics is to put too much emphasis upon places as Mystery-Schools” (Studies in Occult Philosophy).

A Mystery school is not dependent on location; rather it is an association or brotherhood of spiritually disciplined individuals bound by one common purpose, service to humanity, a service intelligently and compassionately rendered because born of love and wisdom. It is a fact, nevertheless, that certain centers appear to be more favorable to success in spiritual things than others. Why, for instance, were the ancient seats of the Mysteries almost invariably in rock-temple or subterranean cave, in forest or mountain pass, in pyramid chamber or temple crypt? Because the currents of the astral light become quieter, more peaceful, cleaner, the farther removed from the madding crowd. Rarely will one find a seat of esoteric training near a large metropolis, for such are “swirling whirlpools . . . ganglia, nerve-centers, in the lower regions of the Astral Light” (Esoteric Tradition).

Hence the locations of the Greater Mysteries were usually carefully chosen and their schools were those which paid no attention to buildings of any kind, mainly for the reason that buildings would at once attract attention and draw public notice, which is the very thing that these more secret, more esoteric Schools tried to avoid. Thus sometimes, when the temples were mere seats of exoteric ritual, the Mystery-Schools were held apart in secret, conducting their gatherings, meetings, initiations, initiatory rites, usually in caves carefully prepared and hid from common knowledge, occasionally even under the open sky as the Druids did among the oaks in their semi-primeval forests in Britain and in Brittany; and even in a few cases having no permanent or set location; but the Initiates receiving word where to meet from time to time, and to carry on their initiatory functions. — Studies in Occult Philosophy

It is the places of quiet, of peace, of strong silence, where the Adepts find themselves drawn, and where the secret or Greater Mysteries can most effectively function. There in the recesses of their initiation chambers the forces and currents are those of the higher astral light, the akasa, the tenuous substance which responds to the higher currents of spirit and intellect. In this way does the Brotherhood transmit its potent spiritual vitality to the initiation halls, and the candidate whose seven-rayed soul is attuned may receive the divine imprint.

Whitehead’s Non-Anthropocentric Quantum Field Ontology. Note Quote.

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Whitehead builds also upon James’s claim that “The thought is itself the thinker”.

Either your experience is of no content, of no change, or it is of a perceptible amount of content or change. Your acquaintance with reality grows literally by buds or drops of perception. Intellectually and on reflection you can divide them into components, but as immediately given they come totally or not at all. — William James.

If the quantum vacuum displays features that make it resemble a material, albeit a really special one, we can immediately ask: then what is this material made of? Is it a continuum, or are the “atoms” of vacuum? Is vacuum the primordial substance of which everything is made of? Let us start by decoupling the concept of vacuum from that of spacetime. The concept of vacuum as accepted and used in standard quantum field theory is tied with that of spacetime. This is important for the theory of quantum fields, because it leads to observable effects. It is the variation of geometry, either as a change in boundary conditions or as a change in the speed of light (and therefore the metric) which is responsible for the creation of particles. Now, one can legitimately go further and ask: which one is the fundamental “substance”, the space-time or the vacuum? Is the geometry fundamental in any way, or it is just a property of the empty space emerging from a deeper structure? That geometry and substance can be separated is of course not anything new for philosophers. Aristotle’s distinction between form and matter is one example. For Aristotle the “essence” becomes a true reality only when embodied in a form. Otherwise it is just a substratum of potentialities, somewhat similar to what quantum physics suggests. Immanuel Kant was even more radical: the forms, or in general the structures that we think of as either existing in or as being abstracted from the realm of noumena are actually innate categories of the mind, preconditions that make possible our experience of reality as phenomena. Structures such as space and time, causality, etc. are a priori forms of intuition – thus by nature very different from anything from the outside reality, and they are used to formulate synthetic a priori judgments. But almost everything that was discovered in modern physics is at odds with Kant’s view. In modern philosophy perhaps Whitehead’s process metaphysics provides the closest framework for formulating these problems. For Whitehead, potentialities are continuous, while the actualizations are discrete, much like in the quantum theory the unitary evolution is continuous, while the measurement is non-unitary and in some sense “discrete”. An important concept is the “extensive continuum”, defined as a “relational complex” containing all the possibilities of objectification. This continuum also contains the potentiality for division; this potentiality is effected in what Whitehead calls “actual entities (occasions)” – the basic blocks of his cosmology. The core issue for both Whiteheadian Process and Quantum Process is the emergence of the discrete from the continuous. But what fixes, or determines, the partitioning of the continuous whole into the discrete set of subsets? The orthodox answer is this: it is an intentional action of an experimenter that determines the partitioning! But, in Whiteheadian process the world of fixed and settled facts grows via a sequence actual occasions. The past actualities are the causal and structural inputs for the next actual occasion, which specifies a new space-time standpoint (region) from which the potentialities created by the past actualities will be prehended (grasped) by the current occasion. This basic autogenetic process creates the new actual entity, which, upon becoming actual, contributes to the potentialities for the succeeding actual occasions. For the pragmatic physicist, since the extensive continuum provides the space of possibilities from which the actual entities arise, it is tempting to identify it with the quantum vacuum. The actual entities are then assimilated with events in spacetime, as resulting from a quantum measurement, or simply with particles. The following caveat is however due: Whitehead’s extensive continuum is also devoid of geometrical content, while the quantum vacuum normally carries information about the geometry, be it flat or curved. Objective/absolute actuality consist of a sequence of psycho-physical quantum reduction events, identified as Whiteheadian actual entities/occasions. These happenings combine to create a growing “past” of fixed and settled “facts”. Each “fact” is specified by an actual occasion/entity that has a physical aspect (pole), and a region in space-time from which it views reality. The physical input is precisely the aspect of the physical state of the universe that is localized along the part of the contemporary space-like surface σ that constitutes the front of the standpoint region associated with the actual occasion. The physical output is reduced state ψ(σ) on this space-like surface σ. The mental pole consists of an input and an output. The mental inputs and outputs have the ontological character of thoughts, ideas, or feelings, and they play an essential dynamical role in unifying, evaluating, and selecting discrete classically conceivable activities from among the continuous range of potentialities offered by the operation of the physically describable laws. The paradigmatic example of an actual occasion is an event whose mental pole is experienced by a human being as an addition to his or her stream of conscious events, and whose output physical pole is the neural correlate of that experiential event. Such events are “high-grade” actual occasions. But the Whitehead/Quantum ontology postulates that simpler organisms will have fundamentally similar but lower-grade actual occasions, and that there can be actual occasions associated with any physical systems that possess a physical structure that will support physically effective mental interventions of the kind described above. Thus the Whitehead/Quantum ontology is essentially an ontologicalization of the structure of orthodox relativistic quantum field theory, stripped of its anthropocentric trappings. It identifies the essential physical and psychological aspects of contemporary orthodox relativistic quantum field theory, and lets them be essential features of a general non-anthropocentric ontology.

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It is reasonable to expect that the continuous differentiable manifold that we use as spacetime in physics (and experience in our daily life) is a coarse-grained manifestation of a deeper reality, perhaps also of quantum (probabilistic) nature. This search for the underlying structure of spacetime is part of the wider effort of bringing together quantum physics and the theory of gravitation under the same conceptual umbrella. From various the- oretical considerations, it is inferred that this unification should account for physics at the incredibly small scale set by the Planck length, 10−35m, where the effects of gravitation and quantum physics would be comparable. What happens below this scale, which concepts will survive in the new description of the world, is not known. An important point is that, in order to incorporate the main conceptual innovation of general relativity, the the- ory should be background-independent. This contrasts with the case of the other fields (electromagnetic, Dirac, etc.) that live in the classical background provided by gravitation. The problem with quantizing gravitation is – if we believe that the general theory of relativity holds in the regime where quantum effects of gravitation would appear, that is, beyond the Planck scale – that there is no underlying background on which the gravitational field lives. There are several suggestions and models for a “pre-geometry” (a term introduced by Wheeler) that are currently actively investigated. This is a question of ongoing investigation and debate, and several research programs in quantum gravity (loops, spinfoams, noncommutative geometry, dynamical triangulations, etc.) have proposed different lines of attack. Spacetime would then be an emergent entity, an approximation valid only at scales much larger than the Planck length. Incidentally, nothing guarantees that background-independence itself is a fundamental concept that will survive in the new theory. For example, string theory is an approach to unifying the Standard Model of particle physics with gravitation which uses quantization in a fixed (non-dynamic) background. In string theory, gravitation is just another force, with the graviton (zero mass and spin 2) obtained as one of the string modes in the perturbative expansion. A background-independent formulation of string theory would be a great achievement, but so far it is not known if it can be achieved.

Matter Defined as Just Another Quantum State: Whatever Ontologies.

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In quantum physics, vacuum is defined as the ground state of a quantum field. It is a state of minimum energy, corresponding to zero particles. Note that this definition of vacuum uses already the conceptual and formal machinery of quantum field theory. It is justifiable to ask weather it is possible to give a more theory-independent definition with lesser theoretical load. In this situation vacuum would be an entity which is explained – not just defined within and then explored – by quantum field theory. For example, one could attempt an operational definition of vacuum as the state in which no particles are detected. But then we have to specify how to detect the particles, with what efficiency, etc., that is, we need a model for the particle detector. Such a model, known as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, is constructed however from within quantum field theory. Unruh-DeWitt detector is a simplified model of a real particle detector. Its basic property is the fact that it is linearly coupled to the field, so that it can detect one-particle states. Indeed, as long as the detector moves inertially in Minkowski spacetime, it really does react to one-particle states and not to the 0-particle state (vacuum). However, when it moves non-inertially, it may react even in the vacuum. The energy needed for the reaction in the vacuum comes from the agency that accelerates the detector (not from the vacuum energy).

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The vacuum is simply a special state of the quantum field – implying that quantum physics allows the return of the concept of ether, although in a rather weaker, modified form. This new ether – the quantum vacuum – does not contradict the special theory of relativity because the vacuum of the known fields are constructed to be Lorentz-invariant. In some sense, each particle in motion carries with it its own ether, thus Lorentz transformations act in the same way on the vacuum and on the particle itself. Otherwise, the vacuum state is not that different from any other wavefunction in the Hilbert space. Attaching probability amplitudes to the ground state is allowed to the same degree as attaching probability amplitudes to any other state with nonzero number of particles. In particular, one expects to be able to generate a real property – a value for an observable – in the same way as for any other state: by perturbation, evolution, and measurement. The picture that quantum field theory provides is that both particles and vacuum are now constructed from the same “substance”, namely the quantum states of the fields at each point (or, equivalently, that of the modes). What we used to call matter is just another quantum state, and so is the absence of matter – there is no underlying substance that makes up particles as opposed to the absence of this substance when particles are not present. One could even turn around the tables and say that everything is made of vacuum – indeed, the vacuum is just one special combination of states of the quantum field, and so are the particles. In this way, the difference between the two worldviews, the one where everything is a plenum and vacuum does not exist, and the other where the world is empty space (nonbeing) filled with entities that truly have the attribute of being, is completely dissolved. Quantum physics essentially tells us that there is a third option, in which these two pictures of the world are just two complementary aspects. In quantum physics the objects inhabit at the same time the world of the continuum and that of the discrete.

Incidentally, the discussion has implications for the concept of individuality, a pivotal one both in philosophy and in statistical physics. Two objects are distinguishable if there is at least one property which can be used to make the difference between them. In the classical world, finding this property is not difficult, because any two objects have a large amount of properties that can be analyzed to find a different one. But, because in quantum field theory objects are only combinations of modes, with no additional properties, it means that one can have objects which cannot be distinguished one from each other even in principle. For example, two electrons are perfectly identical. To use a well-known Aristotelian distinction, they have no accidental properties, they are truly made of the same essence.

To see in a simple way why quantum physics requires a re-evaluation of the concept of emptiness, the following qualitative argument is useful: the Heisenberg uncertainty principle shows that, if a state has a well-defined number of particles (zero) the phase of the corresponding field cannot be well-defined. Thus, quantum fluctuations of the phase appear as an immediate consequence of the very definition of emptiness. Another argument can be put forward: the classical concept of emptiness assumes the separability of space in distinct volumes. Indeed, to be able to say that nothing exists in a region of space, we implicitly assume that it is possible to delimitate that region of space from the rest of the world. We do this by surrounding it with walls of some sort. In particular, the thickness of the walls is irrelevant in the classical picture, and, as long as the particles do not have enough energy to penetrate the wall, all that matters is the volume cut out from space. Yet, quantum physics teaches us that, due to the phenomenon of tunneling, this is only possible to some extent – there is, in reality, a non-zero probability for a particle to go through the walls even if classically they are prohibited to do so because they do not have enough energy. This already suggests that, even if we start with zero particles in that region, there is no guarantee that the number of particles is conserved if e.g. we change the shape of the enclosure by moving the walls. This is precisely what happens in the case of the dynamical Casimir effect. These demonstrate that in quantum field theory the vacuum state is not just an inert background in which fields propagate, but a dynamic entity containing the seeds of multiple possibilities, which are actualized once the vacuum is disturbed in specific ways.