Gauge Fixity Towards Hyperbolicity: The Case For Equivalences. Part 2.


The Lagrangian has in fact to depend on reference backgrounds in a quite peculiar way, so that a reference background cannot interact with any other physical field, otherwise its effect would be observable in a laboratory….

Let then Γ’ be any (torsionless) reference connection. Introducing the following relative quantities, which are both tensors:

qμαβ = Γμαβ – Γ’μαβ

wμαβ = uμαβ – u’μαβ —– (1)

For any linear torsionless connection Γ’, the Hilbert-Einstein Lagrangian

LH: J2Lor(m) → ∧om(M)

LH: LH(gαβ, Rαβ)ds = 1/2κ (R – 2∧)√g ds

can be covariantly recast as:

LH = dα(Pβμuαβμ)ds + 1/2κ[gβμρβσΓσρμ – ΓαασΓσβμ) – 2∧]√g ds

= dα(Pβμwαβμ)ds + 1/2κ[gβμ(R’βμ + qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)  – 2∧]√g ds —– (2)

The first expression for LH shows that Γ’ (or g’, if Γ’ are assumed a priori to be Christoffel symbols of the reference metric g’) has no dynamics, i.e. field equations for the reference connection are identically satisfied (since any dependence on it is hidden under a divergence). The second expression shows instead that the same Einstein equations for g can be obtained as the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Lagrangian:

L1 = 1/2κ[gβμ(R’βμ + qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)  – 2∧]√g ds —– (3)

which is first order in the dynamical field g and it is covariant since q is a tensor. The two Lagrangians Land L1, are thence said to be equivalent, since they provide the same field equations.

In order to define the natural theory, we will have to declare our attitude towards the reference field Γ’. One possibility is to mimic the procedure used in Yang-Mills theories, i.e. restrict to variations which keep the reference background fixed. Alternatively we can consider Γ’ (or g’) as a dynamical field exactly as g is, even though the reference is not endowed with a physical meaning. In other words, we consider arbitrary variations and arbitrary transformations even if we declare that g is “observable” and genuinely related to the gravitational field, while Γ’ is not observable and it just sets the reference level of conserved quantities. A further important role played by Γ’ is that it allows covariance of the first order Lagrangian L1, . No first order Lagrangian for Einstein equations exists, in fact, if one does not allow the existence of a reference background field (a connection or something else, e.g. a metric or a tetrad field). To obtain a good and physically sound theory out of the Lagrangian L1, we still have to improve its dependence on the reference background Γ’. For brevity’s sake, let us assume that Γ’ is the Levi-Civita connection of a metric g’ which thence becomes the reference background. Let us also assume (even if this is not at all necessary) that the reference background g’ is Lorentzian. We shall introduce a dynamics for the reference background g’, (thus transforming its Levi-Civita connection into a truly dynamical connection), by considering a new Lagrangian:

L1B = 1/2κ[√g(R – 2∧) – dα(√g gμνwαμν) – √g'(R’ – 2∧)]ds

= 1/2κ[(R’ – 2∧)(√g – √g’) + √g gβμ(qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)]ds —– (4)

which is obtained from L1 by subtracting the kinetic term (R’ – 2∧) √g’. The field g’ is no longer undetermined by field equations, but it has to be a solution of the variational equations for L1B w. r. t. g, which coincide with Einstein field equations. Why should a reference field, which we pretend not to be observable, obey some field equation? Field equations are here functional to the role that g’ plays in our framework. If g’ has to fix the zero value of conserved quantities of g which are relative to the reference configuration g’ it is thence reasonable to require that g’ is a solution of Einstein equations as well. Under this assumption, in fact, both g and g’ represent a physical situation and relative conserved quantities represent, for example, the energy “spent to go” from the configuration g’ to the configuration g. To be strictly precise, further hypotheses should be made to make the whole matter physically meaningful in concrete situations. In a suitable sense we have to ensure that g’ and g belong to the same equivalence class under some (yet undetermined equivalence relation), e.g. that g’ can be homotopically deformed onto g or that they satisfy some common set of boundary (or asymptotic) conditions.

Considering the Lagrangian L1B as a function of the two dynamical fields g and g’, first order in g and second order in g’. The field g is endowed with a physical meaning ultimately related to the gravitational field, while g’ is not observable and it provides at once covariance and the zero level of conserved quantities. Moreover, deformations will be ordinary (unrestricted) deformations both on g’ and g, and symmetries will drag both g’ and g. Of course, a natural framework has to be absolute to have a sense; any further trick or limitation does eventually destroy the naturality. The Lagrangian L1B is thence a Lagrangian

L1B : J2Lor(M) xM J1Lor(M) → Am(M)

Spinorial Algebra


Superspace is to supersymmetry as Minkowski space is to the Lorentz group. Superspace provides the most natural geometrical setting in which to describe supersymmetrical theories. Almost no physicist would utilize the component of Lorentz four-vectors or higher rank tensor to describe relativistic physics.

In a field theory, boson and fermions are to be regarded as diffeomorphisms generating two different vector spaces; the supersymmetry generators are nothing but sets of linear maps between these spaces. We can thus include a supersymmetric theory in a more general geometrical framework defining the collection of diffeomorphisms,

φi : R → RdL, i = 1,…, dL —– (1)

ψαˆ : R → RdR, i = 1,…, dR —– (2)

where the one-dimensional dependence reminds us that we restrict our attention to mechanics. The free vector spaces generated by {φi}i=1dL and {ψαˆ}αˆdR are respectively VL and VR, isomorphic to RdL and RdR. For matrix representations in the following, the two integers are restricted to the case dL = dR = d. Four different linear mappings can act on VL and VR

ML : VL → VR, MR : VR → VL

UL : VL → VL, UR : VR → VR —– (3)

with linear map space dimensions

dimML = dimMR = dRdL = d2,

dimUL = dL2 = d2, dimUR = dR2 = d2 —– (4)

as a consequence of linearity. To relate this construction to a general real (≡ GR) algebraic structure of dimension d and rank N denoted by GR(d,N), two more requirements need to be added.

Defining the generators of GR(d,N) as the family of N + N linear maps

LI ∈ {ML}, I = 1,…, N

RK ∈ {MR}, K = 1,…, N —– (5)

such that ∀ I, K = 1,…, N, we have

LI ◦ RK + LK ◦ RI = −2δIKIVR

RI ◦ LK + RK ◦ LI = −2δIKIVL —– (6)

where IVL and IVR are identity maps on VL and VR. Equations (6) will later be embedded into a Clifford algebra but one point has to be emphasized, we are working with real objects.

After equipping VL and VR with euclidean inner products ⟨·,·⟩VL and ⟨·,·⟩VR, respectively, the generators satisfy the property

⟨φ, RI(ψ)⟩VL = −⟨LI(φ), ψ⟩VR, ∀ (φ, ψ) ∈ VL ⊕ VR —— (7)

This condition relates LI to the hermitian conjugate of RI, namely RI, defined as usual by

⟨φ, RI(ψ)⟩VL = ⟨RI(φ), ψ⟩VR —– (8)

such that

RI = RIt = −LI —– (9)

The role of {UL} and {UR} maps is to connect different representations once a set of generators defined by conditions (6) and (7) has been chosen. Notice that (RILJ)ij ∈ UL and (LIRJ)αˆβˆ ∈ UR. Let us consider A ∈ {UL} and B ∈ {UR} such that

A : φ → φ′ = Aφ

B : ψ → ψ′ = Bψ —– (10)

with Vas an example,

⟨φ, RI(ψ)⟩VL → ⟨Aφ, RI B(ψ)⟩VL

= ⟨φ,A RI B(ψ)⟩VL

= ⟨φ, RI (ψ)⟩VL —– (11)

so a change of representation transforms the generators in the following manner:


RI → RI = ARIB —– (12)

In general (6) and (7) do not identify a unique set of generators. Thus, an equivalence relation has to be defined on the space of possible sets of generators, say {LI, RI} ∼ {LI, RI} iff ∃ A ∈ {UL} and B ∈ {UR} such that L′ = BLIA and R′ = ARIB.

Moving on to how supersymmetry is born, we consider the manner in which algebraic derivations are defined by

δεφi = iεI(RI)iαˆψαˆ

δεψαˆ = −εI(LI)αˆiτφi —– (13)

where the real-valued fields {φi}i=1dL and {ψαˆ}αˆ=1dR can be interpreted as bosonic and fermionic respectively. The fermionic nature attributed to the VR elements implies that ML and MR generators, together with supersymmetry transformation parameters εI, anticommute among themselves. Introducing the dL + dR dimensional space VL ⊕ VR with vectors

Ψ = (ψ φ) —– (14)

(13) reads

δε(Ψ) = (iεRψ εL∂τφ) —– (15)

such that

ε1, δε2]Ψ = iε1Iε2J (RILJτφ LIRJτψ) – iε2Jε1I (RJLIτφ LJRIτψ) = – 2iε1Iε2IτΨ —– (16)

utilizing that we have classical anticommuting parameters and that (6) holds. From (16) it is clear that δε acts as a supersymmetry generator, so that we can set

δQΨ := δεΨ = iεIQIΨ —– (17)

which is equivalent to writing

δQφi = i(εIQIψ)i

δQψαˆ = i(εIQIφ)αˆ —– (18)


Q1 = (0LIH RI0) —– (19)

where H = i∂τ. As a consequence of (16) a familiar anticommutation relation appears

{QI, QJ} = − 2iδIJH —– (20)

confirming that we are about to recognize supersymmetry, and once this is achieved, we can associate to the algebraic derivations (13), the variations defining the scalar supermultiplets. However, the choice (13) is not unique, for this is where we could have a spinorial one,

δQξαˆ = εI(LI)αˆiFi

δQFi = − iεI(RI)iαˆτξαˆ —– (21)

Is There a Philosophy of Bundles and Fields? Drunken Risibility.

The bundle formulation of field theory is not at all motivated by just seeking a full mathematical generality; on the contrary it is just an empirical consequence of physical situations that concretely happen in Nature. One among the simplest of these situations may be that of a particle constrained to move on a sphere, denoted by S2; the physical state of such a dynamical system is described by providing both the position of the particle and its momentum, which is a tangent vector to the sphere. In other words, the state of this system is described by a point of the so-called tangent bundle TS2 of the sphere, which is non-trivial, i.e. it has a global topology which differs from the (trivial) product topology of S2 x R2. When one seeks for solutions of the relevant equations of motion some local coordinates have to be chosen on the sphere, e.g. stereographic coordinates covering the whole sphere but a point (let us say the north pole). On such a coordinate neighbourhood (which is contractible to a point being a diffeomorphic copy of R2) there exists a trivialization of the corresponding portion of the tangent bundle of the sphere, so that the relevant equations of motion can be locally written in R2 x R2. At the global level, however, together with the equations, one should give some boundary conditions which will ensure regularity in the north pole. As is well known, different inequivalent choices are possible; these boundary conditions may be considered as what is left in the local theory out of the non-triviality of the configuration bundle TS2.

Moreover, much before modem gauge theories or even more complicated new field theories, the theory of General Relativity is the ultimate proof of the need of a bundle framework to describe physical situations. Among other things, in fact, General Relativity assumes that spacetime is not the “simple” Minkowski space introduced for Special Relativity, which has the topology of R4. In general it is a Lorentzian four-dimensional manifold possibly endowed with a complicated global topology. On such a manifold, the choice of a trivial bundle M x F as the configuration bundle for a field theory is mathematically unjustified as well as physically wrong in general. In fact, as long as spacetime is a contractible manifold, as Minkowski space is, all bundles on it are forced to be trivial; however, if spacetime is allowed to be topologically non-trivial, then trivial bundles on it are just a small subclass of all possible bundles among which the configuration bundle can be chosen. Again, given the base M and the fiber F, the non-unique choice of the topology of the configuration bundle corresponds to different global requirements.

A simple purely geometrical example can be considered to sustain this claim. Let us consider M = S1 and F = (-1, 1), an interval of the real line R; then ∃ (at least) countably many “inequivalent” bundles other than the trivial one Mö0 = S1 X F , i.e. the cylinder, as shown


Furthermore the word “inequivalent” can be endowed with different meanings. The bundles shown in the figure are all inequivalent as embedded bundles (i.e. there is no diffeomorphism of the ambient space transforming one into the other) but the even ones (as well as the odd ones) are all equivalent among each other as abstract (i.e. not embedded) bundles (since they have the same transition functions).

The bundles Mön (n being any positive integer) can be obtained from the trivial bundle Mö0 by cutting it along a fiber, twisting n-times and then glueing again together. The bundle Mö1 is called the Moebius band (or strip). All bundles Mön are canonically fibered on S1, but just Mö0 is trivial. Differences among such bundles are global properties, which for example imply that the even ones Mö2k allow never-vanishing sections (i.e. field configurations) while the odd ones Mö2k+1 do not.

Vector Fields Tangent to the Surfaces of Foliation. Note Quote.


Although we are interested in gauge field theories, we will use mainly the language of mechanics that is, of a finite number of degrees of freedom, which is sufficient for our purposes. A quick switch to the field theory language can be achieved by using DeWitt’s condensed notation. Consider, as our starting point a time-independent first- order Lagrangian L(q, q ̇) defined in configuration-velocity space TQ, that is, the tangent bundle of some configuration manifold Q that we assume to be of dimension n. Gauge theories rely on singular as opposed to regular Lagrangians, that is, Lagrangians whose Hessian matrix with respect to the velocities (where q stands, in a free index notation, for local coordinates in Q),

Wij ≡ ∂2L/∂q.i∂q.j —– (1)

is not invertible. Two main consequences are drawn from this non-invertibility. First notice that the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion [L]i = 0, with

[L]i : = αi − Wijq ̈j


αi := ∂2L/∂q.i∂q.j q.j

cannot be written in a normal form, that is, isolating on one side the accelerations q ̈ = f (q, q ̇). This makes the usual theorems about the existence and uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations inapplicable. Consequently, there may be points in the tangent bundle where there are no solutions passing through the point, and others where there is more than one solution.

The second consequence of the Hessian matrix being singular concerns the construction of the canonical formalism. The Legendre map from the tangent bundle TQ to the cotangent bundle —or phase space— T ∗Q (we use the notation pˆ(q, q ̇) := ∂L/∂q ̇),

FL : TQ → T ∗ Q —– (2)

(q, q ̇) → (q, p=pˆ) —– (3)

is no longer invertible because ∂pˆ/∂q ̇ = ∂L/∂q ̇∂q ̇ is the Hessian matrix. There appears then an issue about the projectability of structures from the tangent bundle to phase space: there will be functions defined on TQ that cannot be translated (projected) to functions on phase space. This feature of the formalisms propagates in a corresponding way to the tensor structures, forms, vector fields, etc.

In order to better identify the problem and to obtain the conditions of projectability, we must be more specific. We will make a single assumption, which is that the rank of the Hessian matrix is constant everywhere. If this condition is not satisfied throughout the whole tangent bundle, we will restrict our considerations to a region of it, with the same dimensionality, where this condition holds. So we are assuming that the rank of the Legendre map FL is constant throughout T Q and equal to, say, 2n − k. The image of FL will be locally defined by the vanishing of k independent functions, φμ(q, p), μ = 1, 2, .., k. These functions are the primary constraints, and their pullback FL ∗ φμ to the tangent bundle is identically zero:

(FL ∗ φμ)(q, q ̇) := φμ(q, pˆ) = 0, ∀ q, q ̇—– (4)

The primary constraints form a generating set of the ideal of functions that vanish on the image of the Legendre map. With their help it is easy to obtain a basis of null vectors for the Hessian matrix. Indeed, applying ∂/∂q. to (4) we get

Wij = (∂φμ/∂pj)|p=pˆ = 0, ∀ q, q ̇ —– (5)

With this result in hand, let us consider some geometrical aspects of the Legendre map. We already know that its image in T∗Q is given by the primary constraints’ surface. A foliation in TQ is also defined, with each element given as the inverse image of a point in the primary constraints’ surface in T∗Q. One can easily prove that the vector fields tangent to the surfaces of the foliation are generated by

Γμ= (∂φμ/∂pj)|p=pˆ = ∂/∂q.j —– (6)

The proof goes as follows. Consider two neighboring points in TQ belonging to the same sheet, (q, q ̇) and (q, q ̇ + δq ̇) (the configuration coordinates q must be the same because they are preserved by the Legendre map). Then, using the definition of the Legendre map, we must have pˆ(q, q ̇) = pˆ(q, q ̇ + δq ̇), which implies, expanding to first order,

∂pˆ/ ∂q ̇ δ q ̇ = 0

which identifies δq ̇ as a null vector of the Hessian matrix (here expressed as ∂pˆ/∂q ̇). Since we already know a basis for such null vectors, (∂φμ /∂pj)|p=pˆ, μ = 1, 2, …, k, it follows that the vector fields Γμ form a basis for the vector fields tangent to the foliation.

The knowledge of these vector fields is instrumental for addressing the issue of the projectability of structures. Consider a real-valued function fL: TQ → R. It will — locally— define a function fH: T∗Q −→ R iff it is constant on the sheets of the foliation, that is, when

ΓμfL = 0, μ = 1,2,…,k. (7)

Equation (7) is the projectability condition we were looking for. We express it in the following way:

ΓμfL = 0, μ = 1,2,…,k ⇔ there exists fH such that FL ∗ fH = fL

Hedging. Part 2. The Best Strategy to Hedge a Bond is to Short a Bond of the Same Maturity.



Li = PPi ∫tT dx ∫tTi dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR)

Mij = PiPj ∫tTi dx ∫tTj dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR)

This definition allows the residual variance in

P2tTdx∫tT dx’ σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR) +2P ∑i=1NΔiPitTdx ∫tTdx’ + ∑i=1Nj=1NΔiΔjPiPjtTitTjdx’ σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR)

to be succinctly expressed as

P2 ∫tT dx ∫tT dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR) + 2 ∑i=1iLi + ∑i=1Nj=1NΔiΔj Mij —– (1)

Theorem: Hedge parameter for bond in the field theory model equals

Δi = -∑j=1N Lj Mij-1

and represents the optimal amounts of P(t, Ti) to include in the hedge portfolio when hedging P(t,T). This theorem is proved by differentiating equation 1 with respect to Δi and subsequently solving for Δi. The corollary is proved by substituting the result of theorem into equation 1.

Corollary: Residual variance, the variance of the hedged portfolio equals

V =   P2 ∫tT dx ∫tT dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR) – ∑i=1Nj=1NLiMij-1Lj

which declines monotonically as N increases. the residual variance in corollary enables the effectiveness of the hedge portfolio to be evaluated. Therefore corollary is the basis for studying the impact of including different bonds in the hedged portfolio. for N = 1, the hedge parameter in the theorem reduces to

Δ1 = -P/P1 (∫tT dx ∫tT1 dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR))/(∫tT1 dx ∫tT1 dx’σ(t, x) σ(t, x’) D(x, x′; t, TFR)) —– (2)