Fascism’s Incognito – Brechtian Circular Circuitry. Note Quote.

Carefully looking at the Brechtian article and unstitching it, herein lies the pence (this is reproduced via an email exchange and hence is too very basic in arguments!!):

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1. When Brecht talks of acceding to the capitulation of Capitalism, in that, being a historic phase and new and old at the same time, this nakedest manifestation of Capitalism is attributed to relationality, which are driven by functionalist propositions and are non-linear, reversible schemas existing independently of the specific contents that are inserted as variables. This may sound a bit philosophical, but is the driving force behind Brecht’s understanding of Capitalism and is perfectly corroborated in his famous dictum, “Reality as such has slipped into the domain of the functional.” This dictum underlines what is new and what is old at the same time.
2. Sometime in the 30s, Brecht’s writings corroborated the linkages between Capitalism and Fascism, when the victories of European fascism prompted consideration of the relationship between collective violence and regressive social configurations. At its heart, his corpus during the times was a defining moment of finance capital, an elaborate systemic treatment of economic transactions within the literary narrative with fascistic overtones. It is here the capitalist is consummate par excellence motivated by the rational calculus (Ayn Rand rings the bells!!!). Eschewing the narrative desire of the traditional dramatic novel, Brecht compels the readers without any recourse to emotional intensity and catharsis, and capturing the attention via phlegmatic and sublimated pleasures of logical analysis, riddle solving, remainder less, and bookkeeping. This coming together of the financial capital with the rise in European Fascism, despite leading to barbaric times in due course, brought forth the progeny of corporation merging with the state incorporating social functions into integrated networks of production and consumption. What Brecht reflects as barbaric is incidentally penned in these tumultuous ear, where capital evolves from Fordist norms into Corporations and in the process atrophy human dimensions. This fact is extrapolated in contemporary times when capital has been financialized to the extent of artificial intelligences, HFTs and algorithmic decision making, just to sound a parallel to Nature 2.0.
But, before digressing a bit too far, where is Brecht lost in the history of class consciousness here? With capital evolving exponentially, even if there is no or little class consciousness in the proletariat, there will come a realization that exploitation is widespread. This is the fecund ground when nationalist and fascist rhetoric seeds into a full-grown tree, inciting xenophobias infused with radicalization (this happened historically in Italy and in Germany, and is getting replicated on micro-to-macro scales contemporarily). But, what Brecht has failed to come to terms with is the whole logic of fascists against the capitalist. Fascists struggle with the capitalist question within their own circles (a far-fetched parallel drawn here as regards India is the right ideologue’s opposition to FDI, for instance). Historically speaking and during times when Bertotl was actively writing, there were more working class members of the Italian fascists than anyone else with anti-capitalist numbers. In Nazi Germany, there were close to 30 per cent within stormtroopers as minimal identifies and sympathizers with communism. The rest looked up to fascism as a stronger alternative to socialism/communism in its militancy. The intellectual and for moral (might be a strikethrough term here, but in any case…) tonic was provided for by the bourgeois liberals who opposed fascism for their capitalist bent. All in all, Brecht could have been prescient to say the most, but was too ensconced, to say the least, in Marxist paradigms to analyze this suturing of ideological interests. That fascism ejected itself of a complete domineering to Capitalism, at least historically, is evident from the trajectory of a revolutionary syndicalist, Edmondo Rossoni, who was extremely critical of internationalism, and spearheaded Italian fascist unions far outnumbering Italian fascist membership. Failure to recognize this fractious relationship between Fascism and Capitalism jettisons the credibility of Brechtian piece linked.
3. Althusser once remarked that Brecht’s work displays two distinct forms of temporality that fail to achieve any mutual integration, which have no relation with one another, despite coexisting and interconnecting, never meet one another. The above linked essay is a prime example of Althusser’s remark. What Brecht achieves is demonstrating incongruities in temporalities of capital and the human (of Capitalism and Barbarianism/Fascism respectively), but is inadequate to take such incongruities to fit into the jigsaw puzzle of the size of Capitalism, not just in his active days, but even to very question of his being prescient for contemporary times, as was mentioned in point 2 in this response. Brecht’s reconstructing of the genealogy of Capitalism in tandem with Fascism parses out the link in commoditized linear history (A fallacy even with Marxian notion of history as history of class consciousness, in my opinion), ending up trapped in tautological circles, since the human mind is short of comprehending the paradoxical fact of Capitalism always seemingly good at presupposing itself.
It is for these reasons, why I opine that Brecht has a circular circuitry.

Gauge Fixity Towards Hyperbolicity: The Case For Equivalences. Part 2.

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The Lagrangian has in fact to depend on reference backgrounds in a quite peculiar way, so that a reference background cannot interact with any other physical field, otherwise its effect would be observable in a laboratory….

Let then Γ’ be any (torsionless) reference connection. Introducing the following relative quantities, which are both tensors:

qμαβ = Γμαβ – Γ’μαβ

wμαβ = uμαβ – u’μαβ —– (1)

For any linear torsionless connection Γ’, the Hilbert-Einstein Lagrangian

LH: J2Lor(m) → ∧om(M)

LH: LH(gαβ, Rαβ)ds = 1/2κ (R – 2∧)√g ds

can be covariantly recast as:

LH = dα(Pβμuαβμ)ds + 1/2κ[gβμρβσΓσρμ – ΓαασΓσβμ) – 2∧]√g ds

= dα(Pβμwαβμ)ds + 1/2κ[gβμ(R’βμ + qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)  – 2∧]√g ds —– (2)

The first expression for LH shows that Γ’ (or g’, if Γ’ are assumed a priori to be Christoffel symbols of the reference metric g’) has no dynamics, i.e. field equations for the reference connection are identically satisfied (since any dependence on it is hidden under a divergence). The second expression shows instead that the same Einstein equations for g can be obtained as the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Lagrangian:

L1 = 1/2κ[gβμ(R’βμ + qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)  – 2∧]√g ds —– (3)

which is first order in the dynamical field g and it is covariant since q is a tensor. The two Lagrangians Land L1, are thence said to be equivalent, since they provide the same field equations.

In order to define the natural theory, we will have to declare our attitude towards the reference field Γ’. One possibility is to mimic the procedure used in Yang-Mills theories, i.e. restrict to variations which keep the reference background fixed. Alternatively we can consider Γ’ (or g’) as a dynamical field exactly as g is, even though the reference is not endowed with a physical meaning. In other words, we consider arbitrary variations and arbitrary transformations even if we declare that g is “observable” and genuinely related to the gravitational field, while Γ’ is not observable and it just sets the reference level of conserved quantities. A further important role played by Γ’ is that it allows covariance of the first order Lagrangian L1, . No first order Lagrangian for Einstein equations exists, in fact, if one does not allow the existence of a reference background field (a connection or something else, e.g. a metric or a tetrad field). To obtain a good and physically sound theory out of the Lagrangian L1, we still have to improve its dependence on the reference background Γ’. For brevity’s sake, let us assume that Γ’ is the Levi-Civita connection of a metric g’ which thence becomes the reference background. Let us also assume (even if this is not at all necessary) that the reference background g’ is Lorentzian. We shall introduce a dynamics for the reference background g’, (thus transforming its Levi-Civita connection into a truly dynamical connection), by considering a new Lagrangian:

L1B = 1/2κ[√g(R – 2∧) – dα(√g gμνwαμν) – √g'(R’ – 2∧)]ds

= 1/2κ[(R’ – 2∧)(√g – √g’) + √g gβμ(qρβσqσρμ – qαασqσβμ)]ds —– (4)

which is obtained from L1 by subtracting the kinetic term (R’ – 2∧) √g’. The field g’ is no longer undetermined by field equations, but it has to be a solution of the variational equations for L1B w. r. t. g, which coincide with Einstein field equations. Why should a reference field, which we pretend not to be observable, obey some field equation? Field equations are here functional to the role that g’ plays in our framework. If g’ has to fix the zero value of conserved quantities of g which are relative to the reference configuration g’ it is thence reasonable to require that g’ is a solution of Einstein equations as well. Under this assumption, in fact, both g and g’ represent a physical situation and relative conserved quantities represent, for example, the energy “spent to go” from the configuration g’ to the configuration g. To be strictly precise, further hypotheses should be made to make the whole matter physically meaningful in concrete situations. In a suitable sense we have to ensure that g’ and g belong to the same equivalence class under some (yet undetermined equivalence relation), e.g. that g’ can be homotopically deformed onto g or that they satisfy some common set of boundary (or asymptotic) conditions.

Considering the Lagrangian L1B as a function of the two dynamical fields g and g’, first order in g and second order in g’. The field g is endowed with a physical meaning ultimately related to the gravitational field, while g’ is not observable and it provides at once covariance and the zero level of conserved quantities. Moreover, deformations will be ordinary (unrestricted) deformations both on g’ and g, and symmetries will drag both g’ and g. Of course, a natural framework has to be absolute to have a sense; any further trick or limitation does eventually destroy the naturality. The Lagrangian L1B is thence a Lagrangian

L1B : J2Lor(M) xM J1Lor(M) → Am(M)