Evental Sites. Thought of the Day 48.0

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According to Badiou, the undecidable truth is located beyond the boundaries of authoritative claims of knowledge. At the same time, undecidability indicates that truth has a post-evental character: “the heart of the truth is that the event in which it originates is undecidable” (Being and Event). Badiou explains that, in terms of forcing, undecidability means that the conditions belonging to the generic set force sentences that are not consequences of axioms of set theory. If in the domains of specific languages (of politics, science, art or love) the effects of event are not visible, the content of “Being and Event” is an empty exercise in abstraction.

Badiou distances himself from\ a narrow interpretation of the function played by axioms. He rather regards them as collections of basic convictions that organize situations, the conceptual or ideological framework of a historical situation. An event, named by an intervention, is at the theoretical site indexed by a proposition A, a new apparatus, demonstrative or axiomatic, such that A is henceforth clearly admissible as a proposition of the situation. Accordingly, the undecidability of a truth would consist in transcending the theoretical framework of a historical situation or even breaking with it in the sense that the faithful subject accepts beliefs that are impossible to reconcile with the old mode of thinking.

However, if one consequently identifies the effect of event with the structure of the generic extension, they need to conclude that these historical situations are by no means the effects of event. This is because a crucial property of every generic extension is that axioms of set theory remain valid within it. It is the very core of the method of forcing. Without this assumption, Cohen’s original construction would have no raison d’être because it would not establish the undecidability of the cardinality of infinite power sets. Every generic extension satisfies axioms of set theory. In reference to historical situations, it must be conceded that a procedure of fidelity may modify a situation by forcing undecidable sentences, nonetheless it never overrules its organizing principles.

Another notion which cannot be located within the generic theory of truth without extreme consequences is evental site. An evental site – an element “on the edge of the void” – opens up a situation to the possibility of an event. Ontologically, it is defined as “a multiple such that none of its elements are presented in the situation”. In other words, it is a set such that neither itself nor any of its subsets are elements of the state of the situation. As the double meaning of this word indicates, the state in the context of historical situations takes the shape of the State. A paradigmatic example of a historical evental site is the proletariat – entirely dispossessed, and absent from the political stage.

The existence of an evental site in a situation is a necessary requirement for an event to occur. Badiou is very strict about this point: “we shall posit once and for all that there are no natural events, nor are there neutral events” – and it should be clarified that situations are divided into natural, neutral, and those that contain an evental site. The very matheme of event – its formal definition is of no importance here is based on the evental site. The event raises the evental site to the surface, making it represented on the level of the state of the situation. Moreover, a novelty that has the structure of the generic set but it does not emerge from the void of an evental site, leads to a simulacrum of truth, which is one of the figures of Evil.

However, if one takes the mathematical framework of Badiou’s concept of event seriously, it turns out that there is no place for the evental site there – it is forbidden by the assumption of transitivity of the ground model M. This ingredient plays a fundamental role in forcing, and its removal would ruin the whole construction of the generic extension. As is known, transitivity means that if a set belongs to M, all its elements also belong to M. However, an evental site is a set none of whose elements belongs to M. Therefore, contrary to Badious intentions, there cannot exist evental sites in the ground model. Using Badiou’s terminology, one can say that forcing may only be the theory of the simulacrum of truth.

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